A Theory of General Reduction of Gene-Expression Manifesting as Autism (1993 with 2014 revisions of presentation)

Clarke, Robin P (2014) A Theory of General Reduction of Gene-Expression Manifesting as Autism (1993 with 2014 revisions of presentation). [Journal (Paginated)]

Full text available as:



This paper was originally written for a very different audience around 25 years ago, since when a great deal has changed both in autism research and in the wider world. Thus there was no mention of mercury (of which I knew almost nothing at the time) or of the autism increase (of which no-one else knew much either back then). And also I have become much more experienced in writing than back then. And paper-printed journals were very hostile to “excessive” length such that at least one paragraph got rather more squashed than I am happy to see it now. So for these reasons I am making some minor changes to the writing, which do not change the actual content or meaning but which make for a better reading experience. For the convenience of cynics I will list all those changes at the end. In addition I am adding in some update notes in the text, indicated thus: [2014 Update: blah blah...]

Item Type:Journal (Paginated)
Keywords:autism, theory, IQ, gene-expression
Subjects:Biology > Theoretical Biology
Psychology > Clinical Psychology
Psychology > Developmental Psychology
Psychology > Evolutionary Psychology
ID Code:9812
Deposited By: Clarke, Robin Philip
Deposited On:18 Feb 2017 20:30
Last Modified:18 Feb 2017 20:30

References in Article

Select the SEEK icon to attempt to find the referenced article. If it does not appear to be in cogprints you will be forwarded to the paracite service. Poorly formated references will probably not work.

Anthony J. (1958) An experimental approach to the psychotherapy of childhood autism. Br. J. med. Psychol. 31, 211-225.

Asperger H. (1944) Die "Autistichen Psychopathen" im Kindersalter. Arch. Psychiat. NervKrankh. 117, 76-136.(English translation in Frith, 1991)

Attwood A., Frith U. and Hermelin B. (1988) The understanding and use of interpersonal gestures by autistic and Down's syndrome children. J. Autism dev. Disorders 18, 241-257.

Baron-Cohen S. (1988) Social and pragmatic deficits in autism: cognitive or affective? J. Autism dev. Disorders 18, 379-402.

Baron-Cohen S., Leslie A. M. and Frith U. (1985) Does the autistic child have a 'theory of mind'? Cognition 21, 37-46.

Bates E. (1976) Language in Context. Academic Press, New York.

Bickerton D. (1984) The language bioprogram hypothesis. Behavioral brain Sciences 7, 173-221.

Bodnar J. W. (1988) A domain model for eukaryotic DNA organisation: A molecular basis for cell differentiation and chromosome evolution. J. theor. Biol. 132, 479-507.

Bodnar J. W., Jones G. S. and Ellis C. H. (1989) The domain model for eukaryotic DNA organisation 2: A molecular basis for constraints on development and evolution. J. theor. Biol. 137, 281-320.

Boldyreva S. A. (1974) Risunki Detei Doshkolnogo Vostrasta Bol'nykh Shizofreniei. Meditsina, Moscow.

Boucher J. and Warrington E. K. (1976) Memory deficits in early infantile autism. Br. J. Psychol. 67, 73-87.

Campbell M., Hardesty A. and Burdock E. (1977, October) Selected peri- and postnatal and demographic characteristics of autistic children. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, Dallas, Texas.

Cantwell D. P., Baker L. and Rutter M. (1978) Family factors. In Autism (Edited by Rutter M. and Schopler, E.). Plenum, New York.

Carr E. G. and Durand V. M. (1987) See me, help me. Psychol. Today 21 (11), 62-64.

Chomsky N. (1957) Syntactic Structures. Mouton, The Hague.

Ciaranello R. D., VandenBerg S. R. and Anders T. F. (1982) Intrinsic and extrinsic determinants of neuronal development. J. Autism dev. Disorders 12, 115-145.

Coleman M. (1978) A report on the autistic syndromes. In Autism (Edited by Rutter, M. and Schopler, E.). Plenum, New York.

Courchesne E., Yeung-Courchesne R., Press G. A., Hesselink J. and Jernigan T. (1988) Hypoplasia of cerebellar vermal lobules VI and VII in autism. New Engl. J. med. 318, 1349-1354.

Cox A., Rutter M., Newman S. and Bartak L. (1975) A comparative study of infantile autism and specific developmental receptive language disorder. Br. J. Psychiat. 126, 146-159.

Creak M. and Ini S. (1960) Families of psychotic children. J.child Psychol. Psychiat. 1, 156-175.

Damasio A. R. and Maurer R. G. (1978) A neurological model for childhood autism. Archs Neurol. 35, 777-786.

de Gelder B. (1987) On not having a theory of mind. Cognition 27, 285-290.

Ertl J. P. (1968) Evoked potentials, neural efficiency and IQ. In International Symposium on Biocybernetics, Washington, D.C., 1968.Churchill, Edinburgh.

Ertl J. P. and Schafer D. W. (1969) Brain response correlates of psychometric intelligence. Nature 223, 421-422.

Eysenck H. J. (1979) The Structure and Measurement of Intelligence.Springer, New York.

Eysenck H. J. (Ed.) (1982) A Model for Intelligence. Springer, New York.

Eysenck H. J. and Kamin L. (1981) Intelligence, the Battle for the Mind. Pan, London.

Fein D., Pennington B., Markowitz P., Braverman M. and Waterhouse L. (1986) Towards a neuropsychological model of infantile autism: are the social deficits primary? J. Am. Acad. child Psychiat. 25, 198-212.

Folstein S. and Rutter M. (1988) Autism: Familial aggregation and genetic implications. J. Autism dev. Disorders 18, 3-30.

Frith U. (1989) Autism: Explaining the Enigma. Blackwell, Oxford.

Frith U. (Ed.) (1991) Autism and Asperger Syndrome. Cambridge University Press.

Futuyma D. J. (1986) Evolutionary Biology. Sinauer, Sunderland, Mass.

Garreau B., Barthelemy C., Sauvage D., Leddet I. and Lelord G. (1984) A comparison of autistic syndromes with and without associated neurological problems. J. Autism dev. Disorders 14, 105-111.

Gillberg C. (1986) Brief report: Onset at age 14 of a typical autistic syndrome: A case report of a girl with herpes simplex encephalitis. J. Autism dev. Disorders 16, 369-375.

Gillberg C. (1988). The neurobiology of infantile autism. J. child Psychol. Psychiat. 29, 257-266.

Gillberg I. C. and Gillberg C. (1989) Asperger syndrome: Some epidemiological considerations: A research note. J. child Psychol. Psychiat. 30, 631-638.

Gillberg C. and Schaumann H. (1982) Social class and infantile autism. J. Autism dev. Disorders 12, 223-228.

Goodman R. (1989) Infantile autism: a syndrome of multiple primary deficits? J. Autism dev. Disorders 19, 409-424.

Gould S. J. (1983) Hens' Teeth and Horses' Toes. Norton, New York.

He X., Ingraham H. A., Simmons D. M., Treacy M. N., Rosenfeld M. G. and Swanson L. W. (1989) Expression of a large family of pou-domain regulatory genes in mammalian brain development. Nature 340, 35-42.

Hendrickson D. E. (1982) The biological basis of intelligence. Part 2: Measurement. In A Model for Intelligence (Edited by Eysenck H. J.). Springer, New York.

Hermelin B. and O'Connor N. (1970) Psychological Experiments with Autistic Children. Pergamon, Oxford.

Hobson R. P. (1989) Beyond cognition: A theory of autism. In Autism: nature, diagnosis and treatment (Edited by Dawson G.). Guildford, New York.

Hutt S. J., Hutt C., Lee D. and Ounsted C. (1965) A behavioural and electroencephalographic study of autistic children. J. psychiat. Res. 3, 181-197.

Jensen A. R. (1980) Bias in Mental Testing. Methuen, London.

Kanner L. (1943) Autistic disturbances of affective contact. Nerv.Child 2, 217-250.

Kanner L. (1973) Childhood psychosis: Initial studies and new insights. Winston, Washington D.C.

Kollar E. J. and Fischer C. (1980) Tooth induction in chick epithelium: expression of quiescent genes for enamel synthesis. Science 207, 993-995.

Kolvin I., Ounstead C., Richardson L. M. and Garside R. F. (1971) Studies in childhood psychoses: III. The family and social background in childhood psychoses. Br. J. Psychiat. 118, 396-402.

Langlois J. H. and Roggman L. A. (1990) Attractive faces are only averages. Psychol. Science 1, 115-121.

LeCouteur A. (1988) The role of genetics in the aetiology of autism. In Aspects of Autism (Edited by Wing L.). Gaskell, London.

Leslie A. (1987) Pretense and representation: The origins of a theory of mind. Psychol. Rev. 94, 412-426.

Leslie A. M. and Frith U. (1987) Metarepresentation and autism: How not to lose one's marbles. Cognition 27, 291-294.

Lockyer L. and Rutter M. (1970) A five to fifteen year follow-up study of infantile psychosis. IV. Patterns of cognitive ability. Br. J. soc. clin. Psychol. 31, 152-163.

Lord C., Schopler E. and Revicki D. (1982) Sex Differences in autism.J. Autism dev. Disorders 12, 317.

Lotter V. (1967) Epidemiology of autistic conditions in young children: some characteristics of the parents and children.Soc. Psychiat. 1, 163-173.

Lovaas I., Newsom C. and Hickman C. (1987) Self-stimulatory behaviour and perceptual reinforcement. J. appl. Behavior Analysis 20, 45-68.

Lowe L. H. (1966) Families of children with early childhood schizophrenia: selected demographic information. Archs gen. Psychiat. 14, 26-30.

McCann R. S. (1981) Hemispheric assymmetries and infantile autism. J. Autism dev. Disorders 11, 401-411.

McDermott J. F., Harrison S. I., Schrager J., Lindy J. and Killins E. (1967) Social class and mental illness in children: The question of childhood psychosis. Am. J. Orthopsychiat. 37, 548-557.

Mundy P., Sigman M. and Kasari C. (1990) A longitudinal study of joint attention and language development in autistic children. J. Autism dev. Disorders 20, 115-128.

Ornitz E. M. (1985) Neuropsychology of infantile autism. J. Am. Acad. child Psychiat. 24, 85-124.

Paul R. (1987) Communication. In Handbook of Autism (Edited by Cohen D. J. and Donellan A. M.). Wiley, New York.

Pitfield M. and Oppenheim A. N. (1964) Child rearing attitudes of mothers of psychotic children. J. child Psychol. Psychiat. 5, 51-57.

Peters M. (1986) Autism as impairment in the formation and use of meaning: an attempt to integrate a functional and neuronal model. J. Psychol. 120, 69-81.

Prior M. R. (1979) Cognitive abilities and disabilities in infantile autism: a review. J. abnorm. child Psychol. 7, 357-380.

Prior M. R. (1987) Biological and neuropsychological approaches to childhood autism. Br. J. Psychiat. 150, 8-17.

Prior M. R., Gazjago C. C. and Knox D. T. (1976) An epidemiological study of autistic and psychotic children in the 4 eastern states of Australia. Aust. N.Z. J. Psychiat. 10, 173-184.

Ricks D. M. and Wing L. (1975) Language, communication, and the use of symbols in normal and autistic children. J. Autism child Schizophrenia 5, 191-222.

Rimland B. (1964) Infantile Autism. Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York.

Ritvo E. R., Cantwell D., Johnson E., Clements M. C., Benbrook F.,

Slagel S., Kelly P. and Ritz M. (1971) Social class factors in autism. J. Autism child. Schizophrenia 1, 297-310.

Ritvo E. R., Jorde L. B., Mason-Brothers A., Freeman B. J., Pingree C., Jones M. B., McMahon W. M., Peterson P. B., Jenson W. R. and Mo A. (1989) The UCLA-University of Utah epidemiological survey of autism: Recurrence risk estimates and genetic counselling. Am. J. Psychiat.146, 1032-1036.

Runco M. A., Charlop M. and Schreibman L. (1986) The occurence of autistic childrens' self-stimulation as a function of familiar versus unfamiliar stimulus conditions. J. Autism dev. Disorders 16, 31-44.

Rutter M. and Lockyer L. (1967) A five to fifteen year follow-up of infantile psychosis: I. Description of sample. Br. J. Psychiat. 113, 1169-1182.

Rutter M. and Schopler E. (1987) Autism and pervasive developmental disorders: Concepts and diagnostic issues. J. Autism dev. Disorders17, 159-186.

Sanua V. D. (1986, August) Socioeconomic status and intelligence of parents of autistic children. Paper presented at the third world congress of infant psychiatry and allied disciplines, Stockholm, Sweden.

Sanua V. D. (1987) Infantile autism and parental socioeconomic status: A case of bimodal distribution. Child Psychiat. human Dev. 17, 189-198.

Schopler E., Andrews E. C. and Strupp K. (1979) Do autistic children come from upper-middle class parents? J. Autism dev. Disorders. 9, 139-152.

Shucard D. W. and Horn J. L. (1972) Evoked cortical potentials and measurement of human abilities. J. comp. physiol. Psychol. 78, 59-68.

Sigman M., Ungerer J. A., Mundy P. and Sherman T. (1987) Cognition in autistic children. In Handbook of Autism (Edited by Cohen D. J. and Donellan A. M.). Wiley, New York.

Silberberg N. E. and Silberberg M. C. (1967) Hyperlexia: specific word recognition skills in young children. Exceptional Child. 34, 41-42.

Smalley S. L., Asarnov R. F. and Spence M. A. (1988) Autism and genetics. Archs gen. Psychiat. 45, 953-961.

Snowling M. and Frith U. (1986) Comprehension in 'hyperlexic' readers. J. exp. child Psychol. 42, 392-415.

Sofaer J. and Emery A. E. (1981) Genes for super-intelligence. J. med.Genet. 18, 410-413.

Treffert D. A. (1970) Epidemiology of infantile autism. Archs gen. Psychiat. 22, 431-438.

Tsai L., Stewart M. A., Faust M. and Shook S. (1982) Social class distribution of fathers of children enrolled in Iowa program. J. Autism dev. Disorders 12, 211-221.

Volkmar F. R. (1987) Social development. In Handbook of Autism (Edited by Cohen D. J. and Donellan A. M.)). Wiley, New York.

Walker H. A. (1976) The incidence of minor physical anomalies in autistic patients. In The Autistic Syndromes (Edited by Coleman M.). North-Holland, Amsterdam.

Walker H. A. and Coleman M. (1976) Characteristics of adventitious movements in autistic children. In The Autistic Syndromes (Edited by Coleman M.). North-Holland, Amsterdam.

Ward T. F. and Hoddinott B. A. (1965) A study of childhood schizophrenia and early infantile autism. Can. Psychiat. Ass. J. 10, 377-386.

Watson J. D., Hopkins N. H., Roberts J. W., Steitz J.A. and Weiner A. M. (1987) Molecular Biology of the Gene (4th edition) Benjamin/Cummings, Menlo Park, CA.

Welsh M., Pennington B. and Rogers S. (1987) Word recognition and comprehension skills in hyperlexic children. Brain Language 32, 76-96.

Wiedel L. and Coleman M. (1976) The autistic and control population of this study. In The Autistic Syndromes (Edited by Coleman M.). North-Holland, Amsterdam.

Wilson E. O. (1978) On Human Nature. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Wing L. (1976) Diagnosis and definition. In Early Childhood Autism (2nd edition) (Edited by Wing L.). Pergamon, Oxford.

Wing L. (1980) Childhood autism and social class: A question of selection? Br. J. Psychiat. 137, 410-417.

Wing, L (1988) The autistic continuum. In Aspects of Autism (Edited by Wing L.). Gaskell, London.

Wing L., and Gould J. (1979) Severe impairments of social interaction and associated abnormalities in children: Epidemiology and classification. J. Autism dev. Disorders 9, 11-29.

Wing L. and Wing J. K. (1971) Multiple impairments in early childhood autism. J. Autism child Schizophrenia 1, 256-266.


Repository Staff Only: item control page