Cogprints

Characteristics of Fatal Cases of Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) from September 2009 to January 2010 in Saurashtra Region, India

Chudasama, Rajesh K and Patel, Umed V and Verma, Pramod B and Amin, Chikitsa D and Shah, Hitesh M and Banerjee, Anupam and Patel, Ravikant R (2011) Characteristics of Fatal Cases of Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) from September 2009 to January 2010 in Saurashtra Region, India. [Journal (On-line/Unpaginated)]

Full text available as:

[img]
Preview
PDF - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution No Derivatives.

175Kb

Abstract

Background: India reported first case of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in May, 2009 and Saurashtra region in August, 2009. We describe the characteristics of fatal cases of 2009 influenza A (H1N1) infection reported in Saurashtra region. Methods: From September, 2009 to January, 2010, we observed 71 fatal cases that were infected with 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus and admitted in different hospitals in Rajkot city. Real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) testing was used to confirm infection; the clinico-epidemiological features were observed and documented. Results: Median age of the deceased (71) was 29 years, and 57.7% were females. Median time observed was 5 days from onset of illness to diagnosis of influenza A (H1N1), and 57.7% were referred from general practitioner (OR=0.42, CI=0.24-0.74). Median hospital stay reported was 3 days. All admitted patients received oseltamivir, but only 16.9% received it within 2 days of onset of illness. The most common symptoms were cough (97.2%), fever (93%), sore throat and shortness of breath. Co-morbid conditions were present in almost half of the patients who ultimately died, the most common of which was pregnancy (OR=0.15, CI=0.04-0.52). Radiological pneumonia was reported in 98% patients. Conclusion: Residing in urban area, delayed referral from general practitioner, presence of co-existing condition, especially pregnancy was responsible for mortality among influenza A (H1N1) infected positive.

Item Type:Journal (On-line/Unpaginated)
Keywords:Influenza A (H1N1); Epidemiology; Fatal cases; RT-PCR; Pregnancy; Antiviral drug
Subjects:JOURNALS > Online Journal of Health and Allied Sciences
ID Code:7252
Deposited By:Kakkilaya Bevinje, Dr. Srinivas
Deposited On:02 May 2011 18:17
Last Modified:02 May 2011 18:17

References in Article

Select the SEEK icon to attempt to find the referenced article. If it does not appear to be in cogprints you will be forwarded to the paracite service. Poorly formated references will probably not work.

1. Novel swine origin influenza A (H1N1) virus investigation team. Emergence of a novel swine origin influenza A (H1N1) virus in humans. N Engl J Med 2009;360:2605-2615.

2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Swine influenza A (H1N1) infection in two children-Southern California, March-April 2009. MMWR 2009;58:400-402.

3. Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India. Factsheet Influenza A (H1N1). Available from: http://pib.nic.in/h1n1/factsheet.pdf. Accessed on March 06, 2010.

4. Garten RJ, Davis CT, Russell CA, Shu B, Lindstrom S, Balish A, et al. Antigenic and genetic characteristics of swine origin 2009 A (H1N1) influenza viruses circulating in humans. Science 2009;325:197-201.

5. World Health Organization. Influenza A (H1N1) – update 14. Geneva. 2009. Available from: http://www.who.int/csr/don/2009_05_04a/en/index.html. Accessed on February 27, 2010.

6. Human swine influenza: a pandemic threat. Director General of Health Services. Government of India. CD Alert 2009;12:1-8.

7. Baker MG, Wilson N, Huang QS, Paine S, Lopez L, Bandaranayake D, et al. Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) in New Zealand: the experience from April to August, 2009. Euro Surveill 2009;14:pii=19319. Available from: http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ViewArticle.aspx?ArticleId=19319. Accessed on January 21, 2010.

8. Munayco CV, Gomez J, Laguna-Torres VA, Arrasco J, Kochel TJ, Fiestas V, et al. Epidemiological and transmissibility analysis of influenza A (H1N1) in a southern hemisphere setting: Peru. Euro Surveill 2009;14:pii=19299. Available from: http://www.eurosuveillance.org/ViewArticle.aspx?ArticleId=19299. Accessed on January 21, 2010.

9. de Silva UC, Warachit J, Waicharoen S, Chittaganpitch M. A preliminary analysis of the epidemiology of influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in Thailand from early outbreak data, June-July 2009. Euro Surveill 2009;14:pii=19292. Available from: http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ViewArticle.aspx?ArticleId=19292. Accessed on January 23, 2010.

10. Tulloch F, Correa R, Guerrero G, Samaniego R, Garcia M, Pascale JM, et al. Profile of the first cases hospitalized due to influenza A (H1N1) 2009 in Panama City, Panama. J Infect Dev Ctries May-June 2009;3:811-816.

11. Archer BN, Cohen C, Naidoo D, Thomas J, Makunga C, Blumberg L, et al. Interim report on pandemic H1N1 influenza virus infections in South Africa, April to October 2009: epidemiology and factors associated with fatal cases. Euro Surveill 2009;14:pii=19369. Available from: http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ViewArticle.aspx?ArticleId=19369. Accessed on March 12, 2010.

12. Belgian working group on influenza A (H1N1). Influenza A (H1N1) infection in Belgium, May-June 2009. Euro Surveill 2009;14:pii=19270. Available from: http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ViewArticle.aspx?ArticleId=19270. Accessed on January 14, 2010.

13. Ministry of Health & Family welfare, Government of India. Situation update on H1N1. 2010. Available from: http://mohfw-h1n1.nic.in/documents/PDF/EpidemiologicalTrendsInIndia.pdf. Accessed on February 15, 2010.

14. Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of Gujarat. Epidemic Disease Control Act, 1897. Available from: http://www.expressindia.com/latest-news/epidemic-control-act-invoked-to-thwart-h1n1-scare-in-state/504144/. Accessed on March 03, 2010.

15. World Health Organization. CDC protocol of realtime RTPCR for swine influenza A (H1N1). Geneva. April 28, 2009. Available from: http://www.who.int/csr/resources/publications/swineflu/CDCrealtimeRTPCRprotocol_20090428.pdf. Accessed on January 15, 2010.

16. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention. Epi Info version 3.5.1, 2008. Available from: www.cdc.gov/epiinfo/. Accessed on August 15, 2008.

17. World Health Organization. International classification of diseases and related health problems, 10th rev. WHO, 1992.

18. Mathers D, Ma Fat D, Inoue M, Rao C, Lopez AD. Counting the dead and what they died from: an assessment of the global status of cause of death data. Bull World Health Organ 2005;83:171-177.

19. The European scientific working group on influenza (ESWI). Pandemics of the 20th century, 2009. Available from: http://www.flucentre.org/files/Pandemics%20of%20the%2020th%20century.pdf. Accessed on January 25, 2010.

20. World Health Organization. Influenza (seasonal) factsheet. April, 2009. Available from: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs211/en/. Accessed on February 02, 2010.

21. Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India. Guidelines on categorization of influenza A H1N1. May, 2009. Available from: http://mohfw-h1n1.nic.in/documents/pdf/3.Categorization%20of%20Influenza%20A%20H1N1%20cases%20screening.pdf. Accessed on January 15, 2010.

22. Vaillant L, La Ruche G, Tarantola A, Barboza P. Epidemiology of fatal cases associated with pandemic H1N1 influenza 2009. Euro Surveill 2009;14:pii=19309. Available from: http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ViewArticle.aspx?ArticleId=19309. Accessed on January 19, 2010.

23. Jain S, Schmitz AM, Louie J, Druckenmiller JK, Chugh R, Deutscher M, et al. Hospitalized patients with 2009 H1N1 influenza in the United States, April-June 2009. N Engl J Med 2009;361:1935-1944.

24. The ANZIC influenza investigators. Critical care services and 2009 H1N1 influenza in Australia and New Zealand. N Engl J Med 2009;361:1925-1934.

25. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention. FluView: a weekly influenza surveillance report prepared by the Influenza Division. Atlanta. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/flu/weekly/. Accessed on January 21, 2010.

26. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention. Updated interim recommendations for the use of antiviral medications in the treatment and prevention of influenza for the 2009-2010 seasons. Atlanta. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/recommendations.htm. Accessed on January 24, 2010.

27. McGeer A, Green KA, Plevneshi A, Shigayeva A, Siddiqi N, Raboud J et al. Antiviral therapy and outcomes of influenza requiring hospitalization in Ontario, Canada. Clin Infect Dis 2007;45:1568-1575.

28. Donaldson LJ, Rutter PD, Ellis BM, Greaves FEC, Mytton OT, Pebody RG et al. Mortality from pandemic A/H1N1 2009 influenza in England: public health surveillance study. BMJ 2009;339:b5213. doi:10.1136/bmj.b5213.

29. Jamieson DJ, Honein MA, Rasmussen SA, Williams JL, Swerdlow DL, Biggerstaff MS et al. H1N1 2009 influenza virus infection during pregnancy in the USA. Lancet 2009;374:451-458.

30. Dodds L, McNeil SA, Fell DB, Allen VM, Coombs A, Scott J et al. Impact of influenza exposure on rates of hospital admissions and physician visits because of respiratory illness among pregnant women. CMAJ 2007;176:463-468.

31. Neuzil KM, Reed GW, Mitchel EF, Simonsen L, Griffin MR. Impact of influenza on acute cardiopulmonary hospitalizations in pregnant women. Am J Epidemiol 1998;148:1094-1102.

Metadata

Repository Staff Only: item control page