Cogprints

Lighting as a Circadian Rhythm-Entraining and Alertness-Enhancing Stimulus in the Submarine Environment

Crepeau, L. J. and Bullough, J. D. and Figueiro, M. G. and Porter, S. and Rea, M. S. (2006) Lighting as a Circadian Rhythm-Entraining and Alertness-Enhancing Stimulus in the Submarine Environment. [Conference Paper] (Unpublished)

Full text available as:

[img]
Preview
PDF (Lighting as a Circadian Rhythm-Entraining and Alertness-Enhancing Stimulus in the Submarine Environment) - Accepted Version
713Kb

Abstract

The human brain can only accommodate a circadian rhythm that closely follows 24 hours. Thus, for a work schedule to meet the brain’s hard-wired requirement, it must employ a 24 hour-based program. However, the 6 hours on, 12 hours off (6/12) submarine watchstanding schedule creates an 18-hour “day” that Submariners must follow. Clearly, the 6/12 schedule categorically fails to meet the brain’s operational design, and no schedule other than one tuned to the brain’s 24 hour rhythm can optimize performance. Providing Submariners with a 24 hour-based watchstanding schedule—combined with effective circadian entrainment techniques using carefully-timed exposure to light—would allow crewmembers to work at the peak of their daily performance cycle and acquire more restorative sleep. In the submarine environment, where access to natural light is absent, electric lighting can play an important role in actively entraining—and closely maintaining—circadian regulation. Another area that is likely to have particular importance in the submarine environment is the potential effect of light to help restore or maintain alertness.

Item Type:Conference Paper
Keywords:circadian, alertness, melatonin, lighting, spectrum, intensity, psychophysics
Subjects:Neuroscience > Neuroendocrinology
Psychology > Physiological Psychology
Neuroscience > Behavioral Neuroscience
ID Code:6574
Deposited By:Bullough, Dr. John D.
Deposited On:02 Jul 2009 02:41
Last Modified:11 Mar 2011 08:57

References in Article

Select the SEEK icon to attempt to find the referenced article. If it does not appear to be in cogprints you will be forwarded to the paracite service. Poorly formated references will probably not work.

Badia, P., B. Myers, M. Boecker, J. Culpepper, and J. R. Harsh JR. Bright Light Effects on Body Temperature, Alertness, EEG and Behavior. Physiology and Behavior, Vol. 50, 1991, pp. 583-588.

Berson, D. M., F. A. Dunn, and M. Takao. Phototransduction by Retinal Ganglion Cells that Set the Circadian Clock. Science, Vol. 295, 2002, pp. 1070-1073.

Boyce, P. R., J. W. Beckstead, N. H. Eklund, R. W. Strobel, and M. S. Rea. Lighting the Graveyard Shift: The Influence of a Daylight-Simulating Skylight on the Task Performance and Mood of Nightshift Workers. Lighting Research and Technology, Vol. 29, 1997, pp. 105-134.

Brainard, G. C., J. P. Hanifin, J. M. Greeson, B. Byrne, G. Glickman, E. Gerner, and M. D. Rollag. Action Spectrum for Melatonin Regulation in Humans: Evidence for a Novel Circadian Photoreceptor. Journal of Neuroscience, Vol. 21, 2001, pp. 6405-6412.

Cajochen, C., J. M. Zeitzer, C. A. Czeisler, and D. J. Dijk. Dose-Response Relationship for Light Intensity and Ocular and Electroencephalographic Correlates of Human Alertness. Behavioral Brain Research, Vol. 115, 2000, pp. 75-83.

Cajochen, C., M. Munch, S. Kobialka, K. Krauchi, R. Steiner, P. Oelhafen, S. Orgul, and A. Wirz-Justice. 2005. High Sensitivity of Human Melatonin, Alertness, Thermoregulation, and Heart Rate to Short Wavelength Light. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 90, 2005, pp. 1311-1316.

Campbell, S. S., and D. Dawson. Enhancement of Nighttime Alertness and Performance with Bright Ambient Light. Physiology and Behavior, Vol. 48, 1990, pp. 317-320.

Dacey, D. M., H. W. Liao, B. B. Peterson, F. R. Robinson, V. C. Smith, J. Pokorny, K. W. Yau, and P. D. Gamlin. Melanopsin-Expressing Ganglion Cells in Primate Retina Signal Colour and Irradiance and Project to the LGN. Nature, Vol. 433, 2005, pp. 749-754.

De Mairan, J., and M. Marchant. Observation Botanique. Histoire de L'Academie Royale des Sciences, 1729, pp. 35-36 [cited by Moore-Ede et al. (6)].

Figueiro, M. G., J. D. Bullough, R. H. Parsons, and M. S. Rea. Preliminary Evidence for Spectral Opponency in the Suppression of Melatonin by Light in Humans. Neuroreport, Vol. 15, 2004, pp. 313-316.

Figueiro, M. G., J. D. Bullough, A. Bierman, and M. S. Rea. Demonstration of Additivity Failure in Human Circadian Phototransduction. Neuroendocrinology Letters, Vol. 26, 2005, pp. 493-498.

Figueiro, M. G., M. S. Rea, P. Boyce, R. White, and K. Kolberg. The Effects of Bright Light on Day and Night Shift Nurses' Performance and Well-Being in the NICU. Neonatal Intensive Care, Vol. 14, 2001, pp. 29-32.

Fry, G. A. Evaluating Disability Effects of Approaching Automobile Headlights. In Highway Research Bulletin 89, HRB, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1954, pp. 38-42.

Glickman, G., J. P. Hanifin, M. D. Rollag, J. Wang, H. Cooper, and G. C. Brainard. Inferior Retinal Light Exposure is More Effective than Superior Retinal Exposure in Suppressing Melatonin in Humans. Journal of Biological Rhythms, Vol. 18, 2003, pp. 71-79.

Halberg, F. E. Halberg, C. P. Barnum and J. J. Bittner. Physiologic 24-Hour Periodicity in Human Brings and Mice: The Lighting Regimen and Daily Routine. In Photoperiodism (R. Withrow, ed.). American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, D.C., 1959.

Hattar, S., H. W. Liao, M. Takao, D. M. Berson, and K. W. Yau. Melanopsin-Containing Retinal Ganglion Cells: Architecture, Projections, and Intrinsic Photosensitivity. Science, Vol. 295, pp. 1065-1070.

He, Y., M. S. Rea, A. Bierman, and J. Bullough. Evaluating Light Source Efficacy Under Mesopic Conditions Using Reaction Times. Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Society, Vol. 26, 1997, pp. 125-138.

Ingling, C. R., E. Martinez, and A. L. Lewis. Tonic-Phasic-Channel Dichotomy and Crozier's Law. Journal of the Optical Society of America, Vol. 73, 1983, pp. 183-189.

Jewett, M. E., D. W. Rimmer, J. F. Duffy, E. B. Klerman, R. E. Kronauer, and C. A. Czeisler. Human Circadian Pacemaker is Sensitive to Light Throughout Subjective Day Without Evidence of Transients. American Journal of Physiology, Vol. 273, 1997, pp. R1800-R1809.

Lewy, A. J., T. A. Wehr, F. K. Goodwin, D. A. Newsome, and S. P. Markey. Light Suppresses Melatonin Secretion in Humans. Science, Vol. 210, 1980, pp. 1267-1269.

Lockley, S. W., G. C. Brainard, and C. A. Czeisler. High Sensitivity of the Human Circadian Melatonin Rhythm to Resetting by Short Wavelength Light. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 88, 2003, pp. 4502-4505.

McIntyre, I. M., T. R. Norman, and G. D. Burrows. Human Melatonin Suppression by Light is Intensity Dependent. Journal of Pineal Research, Vol. 6, 1989, pp. 149-156.

McIntyre, I. M., T. R. Norman, and G. D. Burrows. Quantal Melatonin Suppression By Exposure to Low Intensity Light in Man. Life Sciences, Vol. 45, 1989, pp. 327-332.

Moore-Ede, M. C., F. M. Sulzmann, and C. A. Fuller. The Clocks That Time Us. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1982.

Rea, M. S. (ed.). IESNA Lighting Handbook: Reference and Application, 9th ed. Illuminating Engineering Society of North America, New York, N.Y., 2000.

Rea, M. S., and M. J. Ouellette. Relative Visual Performance: A Basis for Application. Lighting Research and Technology, Vol. 23, 1991, pp. 135-144.

Rea, M. S., J. D. Bullough, and M. G. Figueiro. Human Melatonin Suppression by Light: A Case for Scotopic Efficiency. Neuroscience Letters, Vol. 299, 2001, pp. 45-48.

Rea, M. S., J. D. Bullough, and M. G. Figueiro. Phototransduction for Human Melatonin Suppression. Journal of Pineal Research, Vol. 32, 2002, pp. 209-213.

Rea, M. S., J. D. Bullough, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and A. Bierman. A Proposed Unified System of Photometry. Lighting Research and Technology, Vol. 36, 2004, pp. 85-111.

Rea, M. S., M. G. Figueiro, and J. D. Bullough. Circadian Photobiology: An Emerging Framework for Lighting Practice and Research. Lighting Research and Technology, Vol. 34, 2002, pp. 177-190.

Rea, M. S., M. G. Figueiro, J. D. Bullough, and A. Bierman. A Model of Phototransduction by the Human Circadian System. Brain Research Reviews, Vol. 50, 2005, pp. 213-228.

Stolgitis, W., Effects of sleep loss and demanding work/rest cycles: An analysis of the traditional Navy watch system and a proposed alternative. 1969, Navy Postgraduate School: Monterey. p. 28.

Thapan, K., J. Arendt, and D. J. Skene. An Action Spectrum for Melatonin Suppression: Evidence for a Novel Non-Rod, Non-Cone Photoreceptor System in Humans. Journal of Physiology, Vol. 535, 2001, pp. 261-267.

Warman, V. L., D. J. Dijk, G. R. Warman, J. Arendt, and D. J. Skene. Phase Advancing Human Circadian Rhythms with Short Wavelength Light. Neuroscience Letters, Vol. 342, 2003, pp. 37-40.

Withrow, R. B. (ed.). Photoperiodism. American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, D.C., 1959.

Wright, H. R., L. C. Lack, and D. J. Kennaway. Differential Effects of Light Wavelength in Phase Advancing the Melatonin Rhythm. Journal of Pineal Research, Vol. 36, 2004, pp. 140-144.

Wright, H.R., and L. C. Lack. Effect of Light Wavelength on Suppression and Phase Delay of the Melatonin Rhythm. Chronobiology International, Vol. 18, 2001, pp. 801-808.

Zeitzer, J. M., D. J. Dijk, R. Kronauer, E. Brown, and C. Czeisler. Sensitivity of the Human Circadian Pacemaker to Nocturnal Light: Melatonin Phase Resetting and Suppression. Journal of Physiology, Vol. 526, 2000, pp. 695-702.

Metadata

Repository Staff Only: item control page