Cogprints

Being-in-the-world-with: Presence Meets Social And Cognitive Neuroscience

Riva, Prof. G. (2006) Being-in-the-world-with: Presence Meets Social And Cognitive Neuroscience. [Book Chapter]

Full text available as:

[img]
Preview
PDF
362Kb

Abstract

In this chapter we will discuss the concepts of “presence” (Inner Presence) and “social presence” (Co-presence) within a cognitive and ecological perspective. Specifically, we claim that the concepts of “presence” and “social presence” are the possible links between self, action, communication and culture. In the first section we will provide a capsule view of Heidegger’s work by examining the two main features of the Heideggerian concept of “being”: spatiality and “being with”. We argue that different visions from social and cognitive sciences – Situated Cognition, Embodied Cognition, Enactive Approach, Situated Simulation, Covert Imitation - and discoveries from neuroscience – Mirror and Canonical Neurons - have many contact points with this view. In particular, these data suggest that our conceptual system dynamically produces contextualized representations (simulations) that support grounded action in different situations. This is allowed by a common coding – the motor code – shared by perception, action and concepts. This common coding also allows the subject for natively recognizing actions done by other selves within the phenomenological contents. In this picture we argue that the role of presence and social presence is to allow the process of self-identification through the separation between “self” and “other,” and between “internal” and “external”. Finally, implications of this position for communication and media studies are discussed by way of conclusion.

Item Type:Book Chapter
Additional Information:The full text of the book is available online at the following web address: http://www.emergingcommunication.com/volume9.html
Keywords:Presence, Telepresence, Heidegger, Activity Theory, Cognitive Science,
Subjects:Philosophy > Philosophy of Mind
Psychology > Cognitive Psychology
Neuroscience > Neuropsychology
ID Code:5966
Deposited By:Riva, Prof. Giuseppe
Deposited On:10 Mar 2008 14:56
Last Modified:11 Mar 2011 08:57

References in Article

Select the SEEK icon to attempt to find the referenced article. If it does not appear to be in cogprints you will be forwarded to the paracite service. Poorly formated references will probably not work.

[1] M. Heidegger, Being and Time. New York: Harper & Row, 1962.

[2] M. Warnock, Existentialism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1970.

[3] H. Dreyfus, Being-in-the-world: A commentary on Heidegger's Being and Time. Cambridge, MA, 1991.

[4] Y. Arisaka, Spatiality, temporality, and the problem of foundation in Being and Time. Philosophy Today, (1996), 40(1), 36-46.

[5] Q. Smith, On Heidegger's theory of moods. The Modern Schoolman: A Quarterly Journal in Philosophy, (1981), LVII(4), 56-61.

[6] T. Winograd and F. Flores, Understanding Computers and Cognition: A New Foundation for Design. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Corporation, 1986.

[7] G. Steiner, Heidegger. Sussex: The Harvester Press Limited, 1978.

[8] J. Prinz, Putting the brakes on Enactive Perception. PSYCHE, (2006), 12(1), 1-12; online: http://psyche.cs.monash.edu.au.

[9] W.J. Freeman and R. Núñez, Restoring to cognition the forgotten primacy of action, intention and emotion. Journal of Consciousness Studies, (1999), 11-12, ix-xix.

[10] A. Clark, Reasons, robots and the extended mind. Mind & Language, (2001), 16(2), 121-145.

[11] J. Haugeland, Having Thought: Essays in the Metaphisics of Mind. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1998.

[12] A. Clark, Being There: Putting Brain Body and World Together Again. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1997.

[13] J.G. Greeno, The situativity of knowing, learning, and research. American Psychologist, (1998), 53(1), 5-26.

[14] L. Suchman, Plans and situated action. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

[15] W.J. Clancey, Situated cognition: On human knowledge and computer representation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

[16] L.A. Stein, Imagination and situated cognition. In: Android epistemology. Edited by Kenneth M, Ford CN, Glymour P and Hayes J: American Association for Artificial Intelligence, Menlo Park, CA, US; 167-182, 1995.

[17] J. Lave and E. Wenger, Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

[18] E. Hutchins, Cognitions in the wild. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1995.

[19] W.J. Clancey, Situated action: A neuropsychological interpretation (Response to Vera and Simon). Cognitive Science, (1993), 17(1), 87-107.

[20] D.A. Norman, Affordance, Conventions and Design. Interactions, (1999)(5), 38-43.

[21] A. Clark, Natural Born Cyborgs: Minds, technologies, and the future of human intelligence. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.

[22] T. Ziemke, What’s that thing called embodiment. In: Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society: 2003; Boston, MA, USA; 1305-1310,2003.

[23] G. Lakoff and M. Johnson, Metaphors we live by. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1980.

[24] F. Garbarini and M. Adenzato, At the root of embodied cognition: Cognitive science meets neurophysiology. Brain And Cognition, (2004), 56(1), 100-106.

[25] V. Gallese and G. Lakoff, The brain's concept: The role of the sensory-motor system in reason and language. Cognitive Neuropsychology, (2005), 22, 455-479.

[26] S. Gallagher, How the Body Shapes the Mind. Oxford, 2005.

[27] M. Wilson, Six Views of Embodied Cognition. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, (2002), 9(4), 625-636.

[28] G. Lakoff and M. Johnson, Philosophy in the flesh: The embodied mind and its challenge to Western thought. New York: Basic Books, 1999.

[29] M.L. Anderson, Embodied Cognition: A field guide. Artificial Intelligence, (2003), 149, 91-130.

[30] A. Revonsuo, Inner Presence, Consciousness as a Biological Phenomenon. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2006.

[31] T. Metzinger, Being no one. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2004.

[32] G. Butterworth and L. Hicks, Visual proprioception and postural stability in infancy. A developmental study. Perception, (1977), 6(3), 255-262.

[33] G. Butterworth, Origins of Self-Perception in Infancy. Psychological Inquiry, (1992), 3(2), 103-111.

[34] S. Gallagher, Bodily self-awareness and object perception. Theoria et Historia Scientiarum: International Journal for Interdisciplinary Studies, (2003), 7(1), online: http://www2.canisius.edu/~gallaghr/theoria03.html.

[35] J.J. Gibson, The ecological approach to visual perception. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1979.

[36] J.J. Gibson, The senses considered as perceptual systems. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1966.

[37] H.R. Maturana and F.J. Varela, Autopoiesis and cognition. The realization of the living. Dordecht, The Netherlands: D. Reidel Publishing, 1980.

[38] E. Thompson, Sensorimotor subjectivity and the enactive approach to experience. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences, (2005), 4, 407-427.

[39] F.J. Varela, E. Thompson and E. Rosch, The embodied mind: Cognitive science and human experience. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1991.

[40] A. Noë, Action in perception. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2004.

[41] A. Clark, Vision as dance? PSYCHE, (2006), 12(1), 1-10; online: http://psyche.cs.monash.edu.au.

[42] P. Jacob, Why visual experience is likely to resist being enacted. PSYCHE, (2006), 12(1), 1-12; online: http://psyche.cs.monash.edu.au.

[43] B. Hommel, J. Müsseler, G. Aschersleben and W. Prinz, The Theory of Event Coding (TEC): A framework for perception and action planning. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, (2001), 24(5), 849-937.

[44] W. Prinz, Perception and action planning. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, (1997), 9(2), 129-154.

[45] W. James, The principles of psychology. New York: Holt, 1890.

[46] G. Knoblich and R. Flach, Action identity: Evidence from self-recognition, prediction, and coordination. Consciousness and Cognition, (2003), 12, 620-632.

[47] V. Gallese, The inner sense of action: Agency and motor representations. Journal of Consciousness Studies, (2000), 7(10), 23-40.

[48] G. Rizzolatti, L. Fadiga, V. Gallese and F. L., Premotor cortex and the recognition of motor actions. Cognitive Brain Research, (1996), 3, 131-141.

[49] G. Rizzolatti, G. Luppino and M. Matelli, The organization of the cortical motor system: new concepts. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, (1998), 106, 283-296.

[50] G. Rizzolatti, L. Fadiga, L. Fogassi and V. Gallese, The space around us. Science, (1997)(277), 190-191.

[51] V. Gallese, The brain and the self: Reviewing the neuroscientific evidence. Psycoloquy, (2000), 11(34), Online: http://www.cogsci.ecs.soton.ac.uk/cgi/psyc/newpsy?11.034.

[52] V. Gallese, Embodied simulation: From neurons to phenomenal experience. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences, (2005)(4), 23-48.

[53] G. Rizzolatti, L. Fogassi and V. Gallese, Cortical mechanisms subserving object grasping and action recognition: A new view on the cortical functions. In: The cognitive neurosciences, 2nd Edition. Edited by Gazzaniga MS. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press; 539-552, 2000.

[54] L. Fogassi, V. Gallese, L. Fadiga, G. Luppino, M. Matelli and G. Rizzolatti, Coding of peripersonal space in inferior premotor cortex (area F4). Journal of Neurophysiology, (1996), 76(1), 141-157.

[55] A.R. Damasio, Time-locked multiregional retroactivation: a systems-level proposal for the neural substrates of recall and recognition. Cognition, (1989), 33, 25-62.

[56] L.W. Barsalou, Situated simulation in the human conceptual system. Language and Cognitive Processes, (2003), 18, 513-562.

[57] K.W. Simmons and L.W. Barsalou, The similarity-in-topography principle: reconciling theories of conceptual deficits. Cognitive Neuropsychology, (2003), 20, 451-486.

[58] L.W. Barsalou, K.W. Simmons, A.K. Barbey and C.D. Wilson, Grounding conceptual knowledge in modality-specific systems. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, (2003), 7(2), 84-91.

[59] L.W. Barsalou, Being there conceptually: Simulating categories in preparation for situated action. In: Representation, memory and development: Essays in honor of Jean Mandler. Edited by Stein NL, Bauer PJ and Rabinowitz M. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum; 1-15, 2002.

[60] R. Adolphs, Social cognition and the human brain. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, (1999), 3(12), 469-479.

[61] J.T. Cacioppo, P.S. Visser and C.L. Pickett (eds.), Social Neuroscience: People thinking about thinking people. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2006.

[62] V. Gallese, L. Fadiga, L. Fogassi and G. Rizzolatti, Action recognition in the premotor cortex. Brain, (1996), 119(593-609).

[63] G. Rizzolatti and M.A. Arbib, Language within our grasp. Trends in Neuroscience, (1998), 21, 188-194.

[64] M. Iacoboni, R.P. Woods, M. Brass, H. Bekkering, J.C. Mazziotta and G. Rizzolatti, Cortical mechanisms of human imitation. Science, (1999), 286, 2526-2528.

[65] G. Buccino, F. Binkofski, G.R. Fink, L. Fadiga, L. Fogassi, V. Gallese, R.J. Seitz, K. Zilles, G. Rizzolatti and H.-J. Freund, Action observation activates premotor and parietal areas in somatotopic manner: An fMRI study. European Journal of Neuroscience, (2001), 13, 400-404.

[66] J. Decety and J. Grèzes, Neural mechanisms subserving the perception of human actions. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, (1999), 3, 172-178.

[67] J.E. Wickham, Minimally invasive surgery. Future developments. Bmj, (1994), 308(6922), 193-196.

[68] C. Keysers, B. Wicker, V. Gazzola, J.-L. Anton, L. Fogassi and V. Gallese, A touching sight: SII/PV activation during the observation and experience of touch. Neuron, (2004), 42(22), 1-20.

[69] V. Gallese, Intentional Attunement: The mirror system and its role in interpersonal relations. Interdisciplines, (2004), 1, Online: http://www.interdisciplines.org/mirror/papers/1.

[70] P. Jacob and M. Jeannerod, The motor theory of social cognition: A critique. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, (2005), 9, 21-25.

[71] M. Wilson and G. Knoblich, The case for motor involvement in perceiving conspecifics. Psychological Bulletin, (2005), 131(3), 460-473.

[72] F. Baldissera, P. Cavallari, L. Craighero and L. Fadiga, Modulation of spinal excitability during observation of hand actions in humans. European Journal of Neuroscience, (2001), 13(1), 190-194.

[73] M. Tomasello, A. Kruger and H.H. Ratner, Cultural learning. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, (1993), 16, 495-552.

[74] M. Tomasello, The cultural origins of human cognition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999.

[75] R.J.R. Blair, Responding to the emotions of others: Dissociating forms of empathy through the study of typical and psychiatric populations. Consciousness and Cognition, (2005), 14, 698-718.

[76] A.N. Meltzoff, W. Prinz, G. Butterworth, G. Hatano, K.W. Fischer, P.M. Greenfield, P. Harris and D. Stern (eds.), The imitative mind: Development, evolution, and brain bases. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

[77] A.N. Meltzoff and M.K. Moore, Imitation of facial and manual gestures by human neonates. Science, (1977), 198, 702-709.

[78] A.N. Meltzoff and J. Decety, What imitation tells us about social cognition: a rapprochement between developmental psychology and cognitive neuroscience. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, (2003), 358, 491-500.

[79] A.N. Meltzoff, Origins of theory of mind, cognition and communication. Journal of Communicative Disorders, (1999), 32, 251-269.

[80] J. Decety, T. Chaminade, J. Grèzes and A. Meltzoff, A PET exploration of the neural mechanisms involved in reciprocal imitaton. Neuroimage, (2002), 15, 265-272.

[81] T. Chaminade, A.N. Meltzoff and J. Decety, Does the end justify the means? A PET exploration of the mechanisms involved in human imitation. Neuroimage, (2002), 15, 318-328.

[82] L.J. Moses, Executive functioning and children's theories of mind. In: Other Minds: How humans bridge the divide between self and others. Edited by Malle BF and Hodges SD. New York: The Guilford Press; 11-25, 2005.

[83] G. Knoblich, I. Thornton, M. Grosjean and M. Shiffrar (eds.), Human Body Perception from the Inside Out. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.

[84] M.A. Umiltà, E. Kohler, V. Gallese, L. Fogassi, L. Fadiga, C. Keysers and G. Rizzolatti, I know what you are doing: A neurophysiological study. Neuron, (2001), 31, 155-165.

[85] J. Decety and T. Chaminade, When the self represents the others: A new cognitive neuroscience view on psychological identification. Consciousness and Cognition, (2003), 12, 577-596.

[86] G. Gergely and G. Csibra, The social construction of the cultural mind: Imitative learning as a mechanism of human pedagogy. Interaction Studies, (2005), 6, 463-481.

[87] G. Csibra and G. Gergely, Social learning and social cognition: The case for pedagogy. In: Process of change in brain and cognitive development Attention and performance XXI. Edited by Munakata Y and Johnson MH. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 249-274, 2006.

[88] G. Gergely, H. Bekkering and I. Kiraly, Rational imitation in preverbal infants. Nature, (2002), 415(6873), 755.

[89] D.E. Lyons, L.R. Santos and F.C. Keil, Reflections of other minds: How primate social cognition can inform the function of mirror neurons. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, (2006), 16(2), 230-234.

[90] M. Jeannerod and E. Pacherie, Agency, simulation and self-identification. Mind & Language, (2004), 19(2), 113-146.

[91] G. Riva, J.A. Waterworth and E.L. Waterworth, The Layers of Presence: a bio-cultural approach to understanding presence in natural and mediated environments. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, (2004), 7(4), 405-419.

[92] L. Anolli, MaCHT -Miscommunication as CHance Theory: Toward a unitary theory of communication and miscommunication. In: Say not to say: New perspectives on miscommunication. Edited by Anolli L, Ciceri R and Riva G. Amsterdam: IOS Press; 3-42, 2002.

[93] L.S. Vygotsky, Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes, vol. Harvard University Press: Cambridge, MA, 1978.

[94] L.S. Vygotsky, Thought and language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1965.

[95] M. Legerstee, Infants' sense of people: Precursors to a Theory of Mind. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

[96] A.N. Meltzoff and R. Brooks, "Like me" as a building block for understanding other minds: Bodily acts, attention and intention. In: Intentions and Intentionality: Foundation of social cognition. Edited by Malle BF, Moses LJ and D.A. B. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press; 171-191, 2001.

[97] C. Trevarthen, The neurobiology of early communication: Intersubjective regulations in human brain development. In: Handbook on brain and behavior in human development. Edited by Kalverboer AF and Gramsbergen A. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Klewer Academic Publisher, 2001.

[98] C. Trevarthen and K. Aitken, Infant intersubjectivity: Research, theory and clinical applications. Journal of Psychological Psychiatry, (2001), 42, 3-48.

[99] M. Tirassa, F.M. Bosco and L. Colle, Rethinking the ontogeny of mindreading. Consciousness and Cognition, (2006), 15, 197-217.

[100] B.F. Malle, L.J. Moses and B. D.A. (eds.), Intentions and Intentionality: Foundation of social cognition. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2001.

[101] S. Della Sala, The anarchic hand. The Psychologist, (2006), 8(18), 606-609.

[102] J.A. Russell, Agency: Its role in mental development. Hove: Erlbaum, 1996.

[103] P. Zahoric and R.L. Jenison, Presence as being-in-the-world. Presence, Teleoperators, and Virtual Environments, (1998), 7(1), 78-89.

[104] T. Marsh, Staying there: an activity-based approach to narrative design and evaluation as an antidote to virtual corpsing. In: Being There: Concepts, effects and measurements of user presence in synthetic environments. Edited by Riva G, Davide F and IJsselsteijn WA. Amsterdam: IOS Press; 85-96, 2003.

[105] M. Csikszentmihalyi, Beyond Boredom and Anxiety. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1975.

[106] M. Csikszentmihalyi, Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. New York: HarperCollins, 1990.

[107] A. Damasio, The Feeling of What Happens: Body, Emotion and the Making of Consciousness. San Diego, CA: Harcourt Brace and Co, Inc., 1999.

[108] V. Gallese, The roots of empathy. The shared mainfold hypothesis and the neural basis of intersubjectivity. Psychopathology, (2003)(36), 171-180.

[109] L. Anolli, R. Ciceri and G. Riva (eds.), Say not to Say: New persectives on miscommunication. Amsterdam: Ios Press. Online: http://www.emergingcommunication.com/volume3.html, 2002.

[110] V. Reddy, On being the object of attention: implications for self-other consciousness. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, (2003), 7(397-402).

[111] M. Tomasello, M. Carpenter, J. Call, T. Behne and H. Moll, Understanding and sharing intentions: The origins of cultural cognition. Behavior and Brain Sciences, (2005), 28(5), 675-691.

[112] M.E. Bratman, Shared cooperative activity. Philosophical Review, (1992), 101, 327-341.

[113] L. Anolli, The detection of the hidden design of meaning. In: The hidden structure of interaction: From neurons to culture patterns. Edited by Anolli L, Duncan SJ, Magnusson M and Riva G. Amsterdam: IOS Press; 23-50, 2005.

[114] C. Schmitt, The Concept of the Political. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1976.

[115] M. Lombard and T. Ditton, At the heart of it all: The concept of presence. Journal of Computer Mediated-Communication [On-line], (1997), 3(2), Available: http://www.ascusc.org/jcmc/vol3/issue2/lombard.html.

[116] J. Searle, Intentionality: An essay in the philosophy of mind. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1983.

[117] E. Ochs and L. Capps, Living narrative. Creating lives in everyday storytelling. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2001.

[118] L. Anolli, S.J. Duncan, M. Magnusson and G. Riva (eds.), The hidden structure of interaction: From neurons to culture patterns. Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2005.

Metadata

Repository Staff Only: item control page