Cogprints

UNERTAN SYNDROME: REVIEW AND REPORT OF FOUR NEW CASES

Tan, Prof. Dr. Uner (2007) UNERTAN SYNDROME: REVIEW AND REPORT OF FOUR NEW CASES. [Preprint]

Warning

There is a more recent version of this eprint available. Click here to view it.

Full text not available from this repository.

Abstract

The aim of this study was to describe additional patients (n = 3) exhibiting the Unertan syndrome (UTS), resident in rural areas of Canakkale. The 8th and 9th families with the UTS, with a total of 16 members affected, have not been previously characterized. A single, non-familial case (Bayramic, Canakkale) occurred during early childhood after an infection with a high fever. Three cases of familial UTS were located in another village in Canakkale. All cases exhibited the three key symptoms of the UTS: 1) walking on all four extremities, 2) primitive language (only sounds), and 3) rudimentary intelligence. Magnetic resonance imaging showed mild vermial hypoplasia in the non-familial case, while there was cerebellar and vermial hypoplasia with a flattened cerebral cortex in the familial cases. Dexterity of the fingers was normal. The man from the latter family was fond of dragging a wooden box after fastening a string around his belt. The collective observations and clinical findings suggest two etiologies for the UTS: 1) genetic, via autosomal recessive transmission and 2) viral, likely the poliovirus affecting the cerebro-cerebellar structures. At a minimum, vermial hypoplasia is suggested to cause fully developed UTS. The subjects could stand upright and even walk bipedally, despite difficulties in balance (ataxia), but they preferred quadrupedal walking. The main difficulty with gait was maintaining a dynamic-asymmetric lateral balance and initiation of the first step during standing. Apparently, a quadrupedal gait in an adult is a developmental regression with absence of the higher control mechanisms for asymmetric lateral balance during bipedal walking. It is suggested that these individuals exhibit ancestral traits; the quadrupedal gait with rudimentary intelligence and primitive speech resulting from viral infections and/or genetic damage may cause devolution (reverse evolution), a manifestation of an experiment of nature as well as experimental studies in animal models. The results support the notion of punctuated evolution, in contrast to Darwin`s theory of graded evolution. Dragging a wooden box using a string wrapped around the belt may also be an example of reverse evolution with regard to tool making, illuminating the very long-lasting period before the invention of the wheel. Herein, there has been no intent to insult or injure these individuals affected by the UTS, rather this is an endeavor to better understand the mystery of human evolution.

Item Type:Preprint
Keywords:Unertan syndrome, quadrupedality, bipedality, intelligence, primitive language, genetics, wheel, evolution
Subjects:Neuroscience > Neurology
ID Code:5745
Deposited By:Tan, Prof. Dr. Uner
Deposited On:10 Oct 2007 01:46
Last Modified:22 Oct 2007 11:43

Available Versions of this Item

References in Article

Select the SEEK icon to attempt to find the referenced article. If it does not appear to be in cogprints you will be forwarded to the paracite service. Poorly formated references will probably not work.

Baker, A. B., Cornwell, S. (1954). Poliomyelitis. X. The cerebellum. AMA Archive of Neurology and Psychiatry,

71,455-465.

Boyd, R., & Silk, J. B. (2000). How Humans Evolved. Pp. 331-334. W.W. Norton & Co Inc.: London.

Bodian, D. (1949). Histopathologic basis of clinical findings in poliomyelitis. The American Journal of Medicine, 6, 563-578.

Booth, J. R., Wood, L., Lu, D., Houk, J. C., & Bitan, T. (2007). The role of the basal ganglia and cerebellum in language processing. Brain Research, 1133, 136-144.

Curnen, E. C., Chamberlin, H. R. (1962). Acute cerebellar ataxia associated with poliovirus infection. The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine, 34, 219-233.

Elena, S. F., Cooper, V. S., & Lenski, R. E. (1996). Punctuated evolution caused by selection of rare beneficial mutations. Science, 272, 1802–1804.

Fabbro, F., Moretti, R., & Bava, A. (2000). Language impairments in patients with cerebellar lesions. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 13, 173-188.

Hof, At. L., van Bockel, R. M., Schoppen, T., & Posterna, K. (2007). Control of lateral balance in walking, experimental findings in normal subjects and above-knee

amputees. Gait & Posture, 25, 250-258.

Hrdlicka, A. (1928). Children running on all fours. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 11, 149-185.

Porter, M.L., & Crandall, K.A. (2003). Lost along the way: the significance of evolution in reverse. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 18, 541-547.

Schmahmann, J. D., & Sherman, C. (1998). The cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome. Brain, 121, 561-579.

Tan, U. (2005a). Unertan Sendromu ve insan ruhunun evrimine iliskin yeni bir teori. Biyobank, No: 3 (15).

Tan, U. (2005b). Unertan Syndrome; qaudrupedality, primitive language, and severe mental retardation; a new theory on the evolution of human mind. NeuroQuantology, 4, 250-255.

Tan, U. (2006a). A new syndrome with quadrupedal gait, primitive speech, and severe mental retardation as a live model for human evolution. International Journal of Neuroscience, 116, 361-369.

Tan, U. (2006b). Evidence for “Unertan Syndrome” and the evolution of the human mind. International Journal of Neuroscience, 116, 763-774.

Tan, U. (2006c). Evidence for “Uner Tan Syndrome” as a human model for reverse evolution. International Journal of Neuroscience, 116, 1433-1441.

Tan, U. (2007). A wrist-walker exhibiting no “Uner Tan Syndrome”: a theory for possible mechanisms of human devolution toward the atavistic walking patterns. International Journal of Neuroscience, 117, 147-156.

Tan, U., Pence, S., Yılmaz, M., Ozkur, A., Karaca, S., Tan, M., & Karatas, M. (2007a). “Uner Tan Syndrome” in two Turkish families in relation to devolution and emergence of homo erectus: neurological examination, MRI and PET scans. International Journal of Neuroscience, in press.

Tan, U., Karaca, S., Tan, M., Yilmaz, B., Bagci, N.K., Ozkur, A., Pence, S. (2007b). Unertan syndrome: A case series demonstrating human devolution. International

Journal of Neuroscience, in press.

Teotonio, H., & Rose, M. R. (2000). Variation in the reversibility of evolution. Nature, 408 (6811), 463-466.

Teotonio, H., & Rose, M. R. (2001). Perspective: reverse evolution. Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evoılution, 55, 653-660.

Turkmen, S., Demirhan, O., Hoffmann, K., Diers, A., Zimmer, C., Sperling, K., & Mundlos, S. (2006). Journal of Medical Genetics, 43, 461-464.

Tvrdik, P., & Capecchi, M. R. (2006). Reversal of Hox1 gene subfunctionalization in the mouse. Developmental Cell, 11, 239-250.

Metadata

Repository Staff Only: item control page