Cogprints

How many dimensions are needed to describe temperament in animals: A factor reanalysis of two data sets

Budaev, Dr. Sergey (1998) How many dimensions are needed to describe temperament in animals: A factor reanalysis of two data sets. [Journal (Paginated)]

Full text available as:

[img]ASCII
26Kb
[img]
Preview
PDF
191Kb

Abstract

Factor analysis has commonly been used to infer the dimensions of animal temperament. However, the results were often complicated by large number of broad and situation-specific factors caused by low psychometric adequacy of the correlation matrices, undermining the assumptions of factor analysis. In this study I reanalyzed the data sets obtained by Royce, Poley & Yeudall (1973) and Gervai & Csányi (1985) including, however, only the variables with high correlations (multiple R2>0.3) and psychometric adequacies (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure>0.5). This yielded more stable and simpler factor solutions than in the original studies. Specifically, even though the present reanalysis cannot rule out the existence of other temperament factors, it indicates that two general dimensions, Activity-Exploration and Fear-Avoidance, are present in such diverse species as mice and the paradise fish.

Item Type:Journal (Paginated)
Keywords:individual differences, animal personality, animal temperament
Subjects:Psychology > Comparative Psychology
Biology > Animal Behavior
ID Code:5478
Deposited By:Budaev, Dr. Sergey
Deposited On:04 Apr 2007
Last Modified:11 Mar 2011 08:56

References in Article

Select the SEEK icon to attempt to find the referenced article. If it does not appear to be in cogprints you will be forwarded to the paracite service. Poorly formated references will probably not work.

Armstrong, J.S., & Soelberg, P. (1968). On the interpretation of factor analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 70, 361-364.

Barrett, P. (1986). Factor comparison: An examination of three methods. Personality and Individual Differences, 7, 327-340.

Barrett, P., & Kline, P. (1980). The location of superfactors P, E, and N within an unexplored factor space. Personality and Individual Differences, 1, 239-247.

Budaev, S.V. (1996). The dimensions of personality in humans and other animals: A comparative and evolutionary perspective. Unpublished manuscript.

Budaev, S.V. (1997a). The dimensions of personality in animals: The comparative and evolutionary framework. In: M. Taborsky & B. Taborsky (Eds.), Advances in Ethology. Contributions to XXV International Ethological Conference, Vienna, Austria, 20-27 August 1997 (vol. 32, p. 90). Berlin: Blackwell Wissenschafts-Verlag (Abstract).

Budaev, S.V. (1997b). “Personality” in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata): A correlational study of exploratory behavior and social tendency. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 111, 399-411.

Cattell, R.B. (1973). Personality and mood by questionnaire. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Cattell, R.B., & Korth, B. (1973). The isolation of temperament dimensions in dogs. Behavioural Biology, 9, 15-30.

Clark, A.B., & Ehlinger, T.J. (1987). Pattern and adaptation in individual behavioral differences. In: P.P.G. Bateson & P.H. Klopfer (Eds.), Perspectives in ethology (vol. 7, pp. 1-47). New York: Plenum Press.

Crawford, C.B., & Koopman, P. (1973). A note on Horn’s test for the number of factors in factor analysis. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 8, 117-125.

Digman, J.M. (1990). Personality structure: Emergence of the five-factor model. Annual Review of Psychology, 41, 417-440.

Dziuban, C.D., & Shirkey, E.S. (1974). When is a correlation matrix appropriate for factor analysis? Some decision rules. Psychological Bulletin, 81, 358-361.

Eysenck, H.J., & Eysenck, M.W. (1985). Personality and individual differences. A natural science approach. New York: Plenum Press.

Gerlai, R., & Csányi, V. (1990). Genotype-environment interaction and the correlation structure of behavioral elements in paradise fish (Macropodus opercularis). Physiology and Behavior, 47, 343-356.

Gerlai R., & Hogan J.A. (1992). Learning to find the opponent: an ethological analysis of the behavior of paradise fish (Macropodus opercularis) in intra- and interspecific encounter. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 106, 306-315.

Gervai, J., & Csányi, V. (1985). Behavior-genetic analysis of the paradise fish, Macropodus opercularis. I. Characterization of the behavioral responses of inbred strains in novel environments: A factor analysis. Behavior Genetics, 15, 503-519.

Guilford, J.P. (1977). The invariance problem in factor analysis. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 37, 11-19.

Horn, J.L. (1967). On subjectivity in factor analysis. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 27, 535-538.

Humphreys, L.G., Ilgen, D., McGrath, D., & Montanelli, R. (1969). Capitalization on chance in rotation of factors. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 29, 259-271.

McKenzie, J. (1988). Three superfactors in the 16PF and their relation to Eysenck’s P, E, and N. Personality and Individual Differences, 9, 843-850.

Montanelli, R.G.Jr., & Humphreys, L.G. (1976). Latent roots of random data correlation matrices with squared multiple correlations on the diagonal: A Monte Carlo study. Psychometrika, 41, 341-348.

Revelle, W., & Rocklin, T. (1979). Very simple structure: An alternative procedure for estimating the optimal number of interpretable factors. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 14, 403-414.

Royce, J.R. (1977). On the construct validity of open-field measures. Psychological Bulletin, 84, 1098-1106.

Royce, J.R., Poley, W., & Yeudall, L.T. (1973). Behavior genetic analysis of mouse emotionality: I. Factor analysis. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 83, 36-47.

Saville, P. & Blinkhorn, S. 1981. Reliability, homogeneity, and the construct validity of 16PF. Personality and Individual Differences, 2, 325-333.

Stevenson-Hinde, J. (1983). Individual characteristics: a statement of the problem. Consistency over time. Predictability across situations. In: R.H. Hinde (Ed.), Primate social relationships: An integrated approach (pp. 28-34). Oxford: Blackwell.

Walsh, R.N., & Cummins, R.A. (1976). The open-field test: a critical review. Psychological Bulletin, 83, 482-504.

Wherry, R.J. (1984). Contributions to correlational analysis. New York: Academic Press.

Wilson, D.S., Clark, A.B., Coleman, K., & Dearstyne, T. (1994). Shyness and boldness in humans and other animals. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 9, 442-446.

Wright, S.P. (1992). Adjusted P-values and simultaneous inference. Biometrics, 48, 1005-1013.

Zwick, W.R., & Velicer W.F. (1986). Comparison of five rules for determining the number of components to retain. Psychological Bulletin, 99, 432-442.

Metadata

Repository Staff Only: item control page