What is Computational Intelligence and where is it going?

Duch, Wlodzislaw (2007) What is Computational Intelligence and where is it going? [Book Chapter] (In Press)

Full text available as:



What is Computational Intelligence (CI) and what are its relations with Artificial Intelligence (AI)? A brief survey of the scope of CI journals and books with ``computational intelligence'' in their title shows that at present it is an umbrella for three core technologies (neural, fuzzy and evolutionary), their applications, and selected fashionable pattern recognition methods. At present CI has no comprehensive foundations and is more a bag of tricks than a solid branch of science. The change of focus from methods to challenging problems is advocated, with CI defined as a part of computer and engineering sciences devoted to solution of non-algoritmizable problems. In this view AI is a part of CI focused on problems related to higher cognitive functions, while the rest of the CI community works on problems related to perception and control, or lower cognitive functions. Grand challenges on both sides of this spectrum are addressed.

Item Type:Book Chapter
Keywords:Computational Intelligence, Artificial Intelligence, neural networks, fuzzy systems, evolutionary computing, pattern recognition, non-algoritmizable problems, higher cognitive functions, lower cognitive functions, grand challenges
Subjects:Computer Science > Artificial Intelligence
ID Code:5358
Deposited By: Duch, Prof Wlodzislaw
Deposited On:19 Jan 2007
Last Modified:11 Mar 2011 08:56

References in Article

Select the SEEK icon to attempt to find the referenced article. If it does not appear to be in cogprints you will be forwarded to the paracite service. Poorly formated references will probably not work.

H.A. Simon, Artificial Intelligence: Where Has it Been, and Where is it Going? IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering 3(2): 128-136, 1991.

A.K. Mackworth, The Coevolution of AI and AAAI, AI Magazine 26(4): 51-52, 2005.

J. C. Bezdek, What is computational intelligence? In: Computational Intelligence Imitating Life, pp. 1-12, IEEE Press, New York, 1994.

D. Poole, A. Mackworth and R. Goebel. Computational Intelligence -- A Logical Approach. Oxford University Press, New York, 1998.

Z. Chen, Computational Intelligence for Decision Support. CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2000.

A.P. Engelbrecht, Computational Intelligence: An Introduction. Wiley, 2003.

A. Konar, Computational Intelligence: Principles, Techniques and Applications. Springer 2005.

A. Kusiak, Computational Intelligence in Design and Manufacturing. Wiley-Interscience, 2000.

S. Dick and A. Kandel, Computational intelligence in software quality assurance. Series in Machine Perception and Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 63, World Scientific 2005.

R.E. King, Computational intelligence in control engineering, Marcel Dekker Inc., NY, 1999.

S.H. Chen, P. Wang, and P.P. Wang Computational Intelligence in Economics and Finance. Advanced Information Processing Series, Springer 2006.

A. Newell and H.A. Simon, Computer science as empirical enquiry: Symbols and search. Communications of the ACM 19(3), 113--126, 1976.

A. Newell, Unified Theories of Cognition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press 1990.

D. Lind, B. Marcus, Symbolic Dynamics and Coding, Cambridge University Press, 1995.

H. Jacobsson, Rule extraction from recurrent neural networks: A taxonomy and review. Neural Computation, 17(6), 1223--1263, 2005.

G. Lakoff, M. Johnson. Metaphors We Live By. University of Chicago Press, 2nd ed, 2003.

G. Lakoff, R. Nunez, Where Mathematics Comes From: How the Embodied Mind Brings Mathematics into Being. Basic Books 2000.

A. Clark, R. Lutz (eds), Connectionism in Context. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992.

W. Duch and J. Mandziuk, Quo Vadis Computational Intelligence? In: Machine Intelligence: Quo Vadis? Advances in Fuzzy Systems - Applications and Theory (eds. P. Sincak, J. Vascak, K. Hirota), World Scientific 2004.

D.E. Goldberg and G. Harik, A Case Study in Abnormal CI: The Design of Manufacturing and Other Anthropocentric Systems. International J. Computational Intelligence and Organizations, 1, 78-93, 1996.

D. Lenat and R. V. Guha, Building Large Knowledge-Based Systems: Representation and Inference in the Cyc Project. Addison-Wesley 1990.

J. Szymanski, T. Sarnatowicz and W. Duch, Towards Avatars with Artificial Minds: Role of Semantic Memory. Journal of Ubiquitous Computing and Intelligence (in print)

E.A. Feigenbaum, Some Challenges and Grand Challenges for Computational Intelligence. Journal of the ACM 50(1), 32--40, 2003.

R. Kurzweil. The age of spiritual machines: When computers exceed human intelligence. Penguin, New York, NY, 1999.

J. McCarthy, The Future of AI--A Manifesto. AI Magazine 26, 39--40 2005

L. Perlovsky. Knowledge Instinct. Basic Books, 2006.

W. Duch, Towards comprehensive foundations of computational intelligence. In: Duch W, Mandziuk J, Eds, Challenges for Computational Intelligence. Springer 2007


Repository Staff Only: item control page