Cogprints

Neuropsychological Generation of Source Amnesia: An Episodic Memory Disorder of the Frontal Brain

Lakhan, Shaheen Emmanuel (2006) Neuropsychological Generation of Source Amnesia: An Episodic Memory Disorder of the Frontal Brain. [Journal (On-line/Unpaginated)]

This is the latest version of this eprint.

Full text available as:

[img]
Preview
PDF
122Kb

Abstract

Source amnesia is an explicit memory (declarative) disorder, particularly episodic, where source or contextual information concerning facts is severely distorted and/or unable to be recalled. This paper reviews the literature on source amnesia, including memory distrust syndrome, and its accepted correlation with the medial diencephalic system and the temporal lobes, and the suggested linkage between the frontal lobes, including special interest with the prefrontal cortex. Posthypnotic induction was the first presentation of source amnesia identified in the literature. The Wisconsin Cart Sorting Test (WCST), Positron Emission Topography (PET), Phonemic Verbal Fluency Test, Stroop Color Word Interference Test, and explicit and implicit memory tests are defined and linked to empirical research on amnesiacs.

Item Type:Journal (On-line/Unpaginated)
Keywords:episodic memory, explicit memory, frontal lobes, prefrontal cortex, posthypnotic, source amnesia
Subjects:Neuroscience > Neuropsychology
Neuroscience > Neuropsychiatry
Psychology > Cognitive Psychology
Neuroscience > Neuroanatomy
Psychology > Psychophysiology
ID Code:5267
Deposited By:Lakhan, Shaheen E
Deposited On:03 Dec 2006
Last Modified:11 Mar 2011 08:56

References in Article

Select the SEEK icon to attempt to find the referenced article. If it does not appear to be in cogprints you will be forwarded to the paracite service. Poorly formated references will probably not work.

ADDIN EN.REFLIST Aggleton, J. and C. Shaw (1996). "Amnesia and recognition memory: A re-analysis of psychometric data." Neuropsychologia 34(1): 51-62.

Alvarez, P., S. Zola-Morgan, et al. (1995). "Damage limited to the hippocampal region produces long-lasting memory impairment in monkeys." Journal of Neuroscience 15(5, Pt 2): 3796-3807.

Anderson, S. W., H. Damasio, et al. (1991). "Wisconsin Card Sorting Test as a measure of frontal lobe damage." Journal of Clinical and Consulting Psychology 13: 909-922.

Andreasen, N. C., D. S. O'Leary, et al. (1995). Short-term and long-term verbal memory: a positron emission topography study. Proceedings from the National Academy of Sciences.

Baddeley, A., F. Vargha-Khadem, et al. (2001). "Preserved recognition in a case of developmental amnesia: Implications for the acquisition of semantic memory?" Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 13: 357-369.

Barco, A., Bailey, C. H., and Kandel, E. R. 2006. Common molecular mechanisms in explicit and implicit memory. J Neurochem 97(6), 1520-1533.

Berg, E. A. (1948). "A simple objective technique for measuring flexibility in thinking." Journal of General Psychology 39: 15-22.

Brush, E., M. Mishkin, et al. (1961). "Effects of object preferences and aversions on discrimination learning in monkeys with frontal lesions." Journal of Comparative & Physiological Psychology 54: 319-325.

Buckner, R. L., W. Koutstaal, et al. (1998). "Functional-anatomic study of episodic retrieval. II. Selective averaging of event-related fMRI trials to test the retrieval success hypothesis." Neuroimage 7(3): 163-175.

Buckner, R. L., W. Koutstaal, et al. (1998). "Functional-anatomic study of episodic retrieval using fMRI. I. Retrieval effort versus retrieval success." Neuroimage 7(3): 151-162.

Buckner, R. L., S. E. Petersen, et al. (1995). "Functional anatomical studies of explicit and implicit memory retrieval tasks." Journal of Neuroscience 15(1, Pt 1): 12-29.

Bullock, A. (1998). Can prefrontal cortex development explain changes in episodic memory?, Temple University.

Cabeza, R., S. Kapur, et al. (1997). "Functional neuroanatomy of recall and recognition: A PET study of episodic memory." Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 9(2): 254-265.

Charlton, P., M. Wang, et al. (1993). Implicit and explicit memory for word stimuli presented during general anesthesia without neuromuscular blockade. Sebel, Peter S (Ed); Bonke, Benno (Ed); et al (1993) Memory and awareness in anesthesia (pp 64-73) 519pp.

Chugani, H. T. (1987). "Positron emission topography study of human brain functional development." Annals of Neurology 22: 487-497.

Cohen, L. B. and E. R. Gelber (1975). Infant visual memory. ant perception: From sensation to cognition. L. B. Cohen and P. Salapatek. San Diego, CA, Academic Press. 1: 347-403.

Coles ME, Radomsky AS, Horng B. Exploring the boundaries of memory distrust from repeated checking: Increasing external validity and examining thresholds. Behav Res Ther. 2006 Jul;44(7):995-1006. Epub 2005 Sep 19.

Cooper, L. M. (1966). "Spontaneous and suggested posthypnotic source amnesia." International Journal of Clinical & Experimental Hypnosis 14(2): 180-193.

Cowan, N., Beschin, N., and Della Sala, S. 2004. Verbal recall in amnesiacs under conditions of diminished retroactive interference. Brain 127(Pt 4), 825-834.

Craik, F. I. (1983). On the transfer of information from temporary to permanent memory.

Craik, F. I., L. W. Morris, et al. (1990). "Relations between source amnesia and frontal lobe functioning in older adults." Psychology & Aging 5(1): 148-151.

Diamond, A., C. Towle, et al. (1994). "Young children's performance on a task sensitive to the memory functions of the medial temporal lobe in adults: The delayed nonmatching-to-sample task reveals problems that are due to non-memory-related task demands." Behavioral Neuroscience 108(4): 659-680.

Diamond, A., S. Zola-Morgan, et al. (1989). "Successful performance by monkeys with lesions of the hippocampal formation on AB and object retrieval, two tasks that mark developmental changes in human infants." Behavioral Neuroscience 103(3): 526-537.

Drummey, A. B. and N. S. Newcombe (2002). "Developmental changes in source memory." Developmental Science 5(4): 502-513.

Evans, F. J. and W. A. Thorn (1963). "Source amnesia after hypnosis." American Psychologist 18.

Evans, F. J. and W. A. Thorn (1966). "Two types of posthypnotic amnesia: Recall amnesia and source amnesia." International Journal of Clinical & Experimental Hypnosis 14(2): 162-179.

Executive Alvarez JA, Emory E. function and the frontal lobes: a meta-analytic review. Neuropsychol Rev. 2006 Mar;16(1):17-42.

Fagan, J. F. (1970). "Memory in the infant." Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 9: 217-226.

Fall, C. P., and Rinzel, J. 2006. An intracellular Ca2+ subsystem as a biologically plausible source of intrinsic conditional bistability in a network model of working memory. J Comput Neurosci 20(1), 97-107.

Fantz, R. L. (1964). "Visual experience in infants: Decreased attention to familiar patterns relative to novel ones." Science 146: 668-670.

Farvolden P, Woody EZ. Hypnosis, memory, and frontal executive functioning. Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2004 Jan;52(1):3-26.

Gaffan, D., E. Gaffan, et al. (1984). "Effects of fornix transection on spontaneous and trained non-matching by monkeys." Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology B 36B(4): 285-303.

Goff, L. M. and H. L. Roediger (1998). "Imagination inflation for action events: Repeated imaginings lead to illusory recollections." Memory & Cognition 26(1): 20-33.

Gold, J. J., Smith, C. N., Bayley, P. J., Shrager, Y., Brewer, J. B., Stark, C. E., Hopkins, R. O., and Squire, L. R. 2006. Item memory, source memory, and the medial temporal lobe: concordant findings from fMRI and memory-impaired patients. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103(24), 9351-9356.

Gow, C. A. (1995). Source amnesia in patients with frontal lobe damage, U Ottawa, Canada, 1.

Gudjonsson, G. H. (1992). The psychology of interrogations, confessions and testimony, (1992). xii, 362pp.

Gudjonsson, G. H. (1996). "Forensic psychology in England: One practitioner's experience and viewpoint." Legal & Criminological Psychology 1(Part 1): 131-142.

Gudjonsson, G. H. (2003). The psychology of interrogations and confessions: A handbook. New York, NY, John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Gudjonsson, G. H., M. D. Kopelman, et al. (1999). "Unreliable admissions to homicide: A case of misdiagnosis of amnesia and misuse of abreaction technique." British Journal of Psychiatry 174: 455-459.

Gudjonsson, G. H. and J. A. MacKeith (1982). False confessions. Psychological effects of interrogation. Reconstructing the past: The Role of Psychologists in Criminal Trials. A. Trankell. Deventer, The Netherlands, Kluwer.

Gudjonsson, G. H. and J. A. MacKeith (1990). "A proven case of false confession: psychological aspects of the coerced-compliant type." Medicine, Science, and the Law 30: 329-335.

Haug, H., U. Barmwater, et al. (1983). Anatomical changes in the aging brain. Aging: Vol 21. Brain Aging: Neuropathology and Neuropharmacology. J. Cervos-Navarro and H. I. Sarkander. New York, Raven Press: 1-12.

Heckers, S., T. Curran, et al. (2000). "Abnormalities in the thalamus and prefrontal cortex during episodic object recognition in schizophrenia." Biological Psychiatry 48(7): 651-657.

Hirst, W. and et al. (1986). "Recognition and recall in amnesiacs." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition 12(3): 445-451.

Huttenlocher, P. R. (1979). "Synaptic destiny in human frontal cortex." Brain Research 163: 195-205.

Janowsky, J. S., A. Shimamura, et al. (1989). "Source memory impairment in patients with frontal lobe lesions." Neuropsychologia 27(8): 1043-1056.

Johnson, M. K., S. Hashtroudi, et al. (1993). "Source monitoring." Psychological Bulletin 114(1): 3-28.

Kapur, S. (1998). The role of the prefrontal cortex in episodic memory: PET studies in normal subjects, U Toronto, Canada, 1.

Kaut, K. P. (2001). The role of the hippocampal system in information acquisition and retention: Defining the contributions of the hippocampus and perirhinal-entorhinal cortex, Kent State U., US, 1.

Keane, M. M., Orlando, F., and Verfaellie, M. 2006. Increasing the salience of fluency cues reduces the recognition memory impairment in amnesia. Neuropsychologia 44(5), 834-839.

Khoe, W., N. E. Kroll, et al. (2000). "The contribution of recollection and familiarity to yes-no and forced-choice recognition tests in healthy subjects and amnesiacs." Neuropsychologia 38(10): 1333-1341.

Knowlton, B. and L. Squire (1995). "Remembering and knowing: two different expressions of declarative memory." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 13(4): 531-541.

Leahey, T. and R. Harris (2001). Learning and Cognition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, Prentice Hall.

Lee, A. C., T. W. Robbins, et al. (2002). "Evidence for asymmetric frontal-lobe involvement in episodic memory from functional magnetic resonance imaging and patients with unilateral frontal-lobe excisions." Neuropsychologia 40(13): 2420-2437.

Leritz, E. C., Grande, L. J., and Bauer, R. M. 2006. Temporal lobe epilepsy as a model to understand human memory: The distinction between explicit and implicit memory. Epilepsy Behav 9(1), 1-13.

Luria, A. R. (1963). Higher cortical function in man. New York, Basic Books.

Mayes, A. R. and D. Montaldi (2001). "Exploring the neural bases of episodic and semantic memory: The role of structural and functional neuroimaging." Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 25(6): 555-573.

McCann, J. T. (1998). "A conceptual framework for identifying various types of confessions." Behavioral Sciences & the Law 16(4): 441-453.

McIntyre, J. S. and F. I. Craik (1987). "Age differences in memory for item and source information." Canadian Journal of Psychology 41(2): 175-192.

Millar, K. (1987). Assessment of memory for anaesthesia. Aspects of recovery from anaesthesia. I. Hindmarch, J. G. Jones and E. Moss. Chichester, England, Wiley: 75-91.

Milner, B. (1964). Amnesia following operation on the temporal lobe. Amnesia. J. M. Whitty and O. L. Zangwill. London, England., Butterworth & Co.: 109-133.

Mountain, M. A. and W. G. Snow (1993). "Wisconsin Card Sorting Test as a measure of frontal pathology: A review." Clinical Neuropsychologist 7(1): 108-118.

Nelson, H. E. (1976). "A modified card sorting test sensitive to frontal lobe defects." Cortex 12(4): 313-324.

Nyberg, L., E. Tulving, et al. (1995). "Functional brain maps of retrieval mode and recovery of episodic information." Neuroreport: an International Journal for the Rapid Communication of Research in Neuroscience 7(1): 249-252.

Radomsky AS, Gilchrist PT, Dussault D. Repeated checking really does cause memory distrust. Behav Res Ther. 2006 Feb;44(2):305-16.

Raz, N., I. J. Torres, et al. (1993). "Pathoclysis in aging human cerebral cortex: Evidence from in vivo MRI morphometry." Psychobiology 21(2): 151-160.

Reed, J. M. and L. R. Squire (1999). "Impaired transverse patterning in human amnesia is a special case of impaired memory for two-choice discrimination tasks." Behavioral Neuroscience 113(1): 3-9.

Rossi, S., S. F. Cappa, et al. (2001). "Prefrontal cortex in long-term memory: An "interference" approach using magnetic stimulation." Nature Neuroscience 4(9): 948-952.

Salthouse, T. A. (1982). Adult congnition. New York, Springer-Verlag.

Schacter, D. L. (1987). "Implicit expressions of memory in organic amnesia: Learning of new facts and associations." Human Neurobiology 6(2): 107-118.

Schacter, D. L. (1987). "Memory, amnesia, and frontal lobe dysfunction." Psychobiology 15(1): 21-36.

Schacter, D. L., J. L. Harbluk, et al. (1984). "Retrieval without recollection: An experimental analysis of source amnesia." Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior 23(5): 593-611.

Senkfor, A. J. and C. Van Petten (1998). "Who said what? An event-related potential investigation of source and item memory." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition. 24: 1005-10025.

Shimamura, A. P. and L. R. Squire (1987). "A neuropsychological study of fact memory and source amnesia." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition 13(3): 464-473.

Shimamura, A. P. and L. R. Squire (1991). "The relationship between fact and source memory: Findings from amnesic patients and normal subjects." Psychobiology 19(1): 1-10.

Spencer, W. D. and N. Raz (1994). "Memory for facts, source, and context: Can frontal lobe dysfunction explain age-related differences?" Psychology & Aging 9(1): 149-159.

Squire, L. and B. Knowlton (1995). Memory, hippocampus and brain systems. The cognitive neurosciences. M. Gazzaniga. Cambridge, MA, MIT Press: 825-838.

Swick, D. and R. T. Knight (1999). "Contributions of prefrontal cortex to recognition memory: Electrophysiological and behavioral evidence." Neuropsychology 13(2): 155-170.

Thatcher, R. W. (1991). "Maturation of the frontal lobes: Physiological evidence for aging." Developmental Neuropsychology 7: 397-419.

Thorn, W. A. (1960). A study of the correlates of dissociation as measured by posthypnotic amnesia. University of Sydney.

Tulving, E. (1972). Episodic and semantic memory. Organization of Memory. E. Tulving and M. Roberts. New York, Academic Press: 381-403.

Tulving, E. (1983). Elements of episodic memory. New York, Oxford University Press.

Wagner, A. D. (2002). Cognitive control and episodic memory: Contributions from prefrontal cortex. Neuropsychology of memory (3rd ed ). L. R. Squire and D. L. Schacter. New York, NY, Guilford Press: 174-192.

Whelihan, W. M. and E. L. Lesher (1985). "Neuropsychological changes in frontal functions with aging." Developmental Neuropsychology 1(4): 371-380.

Wilding, E. L. (1999). "Separating retrieval strategies from retrieval success: an event-related potential study of source memory." Neuropsychologia 37: 441-454.

Woodruf, D. S. (1985). Arousal, sleep, and aging. Handbook of the psychology of aging. J. E. Birren and K. W. Schaie. New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold: 261-295.

Metadata

Repository Staff Only: item control page