Anti-Microbial Resistance Profiles Of E. Coli Isolated From Free Range Chickens In Urban And Rural Environments Of Imo State, Nigeria

Okoli I, Dr. Charles (2006) Anti-Microbial Resistance Profiles Of E. Coli Isolated From Free Range Chickens In Urban And Rural Environments Of Imo State, Nigeria. [Journal (On-line/Unpaginated)]

Full text available as:



Information on the resistance profiles of normal intestinal flora of extensively reared chickens that hardly receive antibiotics in the developing countries can serve as important means of understanding the human/animal pathogens drug resistance interactions in the zone. Three hundred and fifty E. coli isolates, comprising 133 from urban and 217 from rural sites in Imo state, Nigeria, were screened for anti-microbial resistance profile against 10 antibiotics using the disc diffusion method. Overall percentage anti-microbial resistance of the isolates against cotrimoxazole, ampicillin, nalidixic acid, chloramphenicol and nitrofurantoin (72–92%) were very high. The organisms were highly sensitive to other antibiotics, especially gentamicin and ciprofloxacin. The 59.5% overall mean percentage resistance recorded at the urban area was significantly higher than the 46.8% recorded at the rural area (p<0.05). With the exception of the figures for cotrimoxazole and ampicillin, resistance values obtained against the other antibiotics at the urban sites were statistically higher than those obtained at the rural sites (p<0.05). Zero resistance was recorded against the fluoroquinolones, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin at all the rural sites except at Enyiogwugwu where a 28.6% resistance was obtained against norfloxacin. Since free-range chickens rarely receive antibiotic medication, it is concluded that the highly resistant E. coli organisms isolated from them may be reflecting consequences of human drug use in the study areas

Item Type:Journal (On-line/Unpaginated)
Keywords:Anti-microbial resistance, E.coli, free-range chicken, antibiotics, Nigeria
Subjects:JOURNALS > Online Journal of Health and Allied Sciences
ID Code:5001
Deposited By:Kakkilaya Bevinje, Dr. Srinivas
Deposited On:16 Jul 2006
Last Modified:11 Mar 2011 08:56

References in Article

Select the SEEK icon to attempt to find the referenced article. If it does not appear to be in cogprints you will be forwarded to the paracite service. Poorly formated references will probably not work.

1. Anonymous, 1997. Report of the WHO meeting on the medical impact of the use of antimicrobials in and animals. 13-17 October 1997 Berlin, Germany.

2. Rosdahl VT, Pedersen KB. The Copenhagen recommendations. Report from the invitational E. U. Conference on the microbial threat. 1998;9-10 September, Copenhagen, Denmark.

3. OIE.The use of antibiotics in animals ensuring the protection of public health. In: Proc. Eur. Sci. Conf. Paris. 1999;24-26 March.

4. Okeke IN, Lamikanra A, Edelman R. Socio-economic and behavioral factors leading to acquired bacterial resistance to antibiotics in developing countries. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 1999;5:13-27.

5. Moreno MA, Dominguez L, Teshoger T, Herrero IA, Perrere ME. Antibiotic resistances monitoring: The Spanish Programme. Intl. J. Antimicrob. Agents. 2000;14:285-290.

6. Okoli IC, Nwosu CI, Okoli GC, Okeudo NJ, Ibekwe V. Drug management of anti-microbial resistance in avian bacterial pathogens in Nigerian. Intl. J. Environ. Hlth. Hum. Dev. (2002a);3:39-48.

7. Mundy LM, Sahm DF, Gilmore M. Relationships between enterococcal virulence and anti-microbial resistance. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 2000;13:513-522.

8. Lester SC, del Pilar Pla M, Wang F. The carriage of Escherichia coli resistant to anti-microbial agents by healthy children in Boston, in Caracas, Venezuela and in Qin Pu, China. New Eng. J. Med. 1990;323:285–289.

9. Murrary BE. Problems and Dilemmas of anti-microbial resistance. Pharmacotherapy. 1992;12:865-935.

10. Okeke IN, Fayinka ST, Lamikanra A. Antibiotic Resistance in E. coli from Nigerian Students, 1986-1998. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 2000;6:393-396.

11. Van den Bogaard AE, Stobberingh EE. Epidemiology of resistance to antibiotics. Links between animals and humans. Intl. J. Antimicrob. Agents. 2000;14:327-335.

12. Nijsten R, London N, van den Bogaard A. Resistance in faecal Escherichia coli isolated from pig farmers and abattoir workers. Epidemiol. Infect. 1994;113:45-52.

13. Nijsten, R., N. London and A. van den Bogaard, 1996. Antibiotic resistance among Escherichia coli isolated from faecal samples of pig farmers and pigs. J. Antimicrob. Chemother., 37: 1131-1140.

14. Chaslus-Dancla E, Glupozynski Y, Gerbaud G. Detection of apramycin resistant Enterobacteriacea. In: Hospital isolate. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 1989;61:261-266.

15. Chaslus-Dancla E, Pohl P, Meurisse N. High genetic homology between plasmids of human and animal origins conferring resistance to the aminoglycosides, gentamicin and apramycin. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 1991;35:590–593.

16. Hunter JEB, Bennet M, Hart CA. Apramycin - resistant Escherichia coli isolated from pigs and stockman. Epidemiol. Infect. 1994;112:473-80.

17. Kariuki S, Gilks C, Corkill J, Kimari J, Benea AP, Hart CA. Multi-drug resistant non-typhoid salmonellae in Kenya. J Antimicrob. Chemother. 1996;38:425-34.

18. Agarwal KC, Garg RK, Panhotra BR, Verma AD, Ayyagari A, Mahanta J. Drug resistance in Salmonella isolated at Chandigarh (India) during 1972-1978. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 1980;46:387-390.

19. Okoli IC, Ozoh PTE, Udedibie ABI. Epizootiological and microbiological methodologies for monitoring anti-microbial resistance among Enterobacteriaceae of animal origin. A review. Nig. Vet. J. 2002b;23:23-39.

20. Okoli IC. Studies on the anti-microbial resistance of E. coli isolates from feeds and poultry production units. Ph. D. Thesis, Federal University of Technology Owerri, Nigeria (Unpublished), 2003. pp: 286.

21. Okeudo NJ. Empirical studies on the living conditions of domestic animals in Nigeria. In: U. C. Malu and F. Gottwald (Eds.). Studies of sustainable agriculture and animal science in sub- Saharan Africa. Peter Lang, Europalscher Verlag der Wissenschaften. 2004. pp: 103-114.

22. Sonaiya EB. Family poultry and food security research requirements in science, technology and socioeconomics. In: XXI World’s Poultry Congress, Montreal, Canada. August 20 – 24, 2000. (CD ROM).

23. Meremikwu VN. The performance of started broilers under subsistence free-range system of production in Nigeria. M. Sc. Thesis, Federal University of Technology Owerri, Nigeria. 2001.

24. Etuk EB, Okoli IC, Uko MU. Prevalence and management issues associated with poultry coccidiosis in Abak Agricultural zone of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Intl. J. Poul. Sci. 2004;3:135–139.

25. Chah KF, Bessong WO, Oboegbulem SI. Antibiotic resistance in Avian colisepticeamic E. coli strains in Southeast, Nigeria. In: Proc. 25th Annual Conference of Nigerian Society for Animal Production. (NSAP), 19th-23rd March, 2000. Umudike, Nigeria, 2000. pp. 303-305.

26. Gillies RR, Dodds TC. Bacteriology illustrated 4th edn. Churchill Livingstone Edinburgh, London. 1976.

27. Cruickshank R, Duguid JP, Marmion BP, Swain RHA. Medical microbiology. 12th edn., Churchill Livingston, Edinburgh. 1983.

28. Edwards PRD, Ewing WR. Identification of Enterobacteriaceae, 3rd edn., Burgess Publishing Company, Minneapolis, Minnesota. 1972.

29. Bauer AW, Kirby WMM, Sherris JC, Turck M. Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standardized single disk method. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 1966;36:493-6.

30. NCCLS, 1999. Performance standard of anti-microbial disk and dilution susceptibility tests for bacteria isolated from animals. Approved standards, M 31 – A, 19.

31. Cheesbrough M. Microbiological tests. In: District laboratory practice in tropical countries. Part 2. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 2000.

32. Steel GD, Torrie JH. Principles and procedures of statistics. 2nd edn. McGraw Hill Book Co. Inc. New York. 1980.

33. Lipsitch M, Samore MH. Anti-microbial use and anti-microbial resistance: A population perspective. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 2002;8:347-354.

34. Halloran ME, Struchinar CJ. Study designs for dependent happenings. Epidemol. 1991;2:331-338.

35. Uwaezuoke JC, Ogbulie J N, Njoku JN, Obiajuru IOC, Njoku AJ. Antibiotic sensitivity patterns of bacterial isolates from poultry feed. Int. J. Environ, Hlth. Hum. Dev. 2000;1:23-28.

36. Okoli IC, Okeudo NJ, Onwuchekwa CI. New trends in antibiotic resistance among E. coli isolates from southern Nigeria. In book of abstracts for the 39th annual national congress, Nigerian Vet. Med. Assoc., 27th to 31st, October, Sokoto, Nigeria. 2002c. pp: 16.

37. Chah KF, Okafor SC, Oboegbulem SI. Anti-microbial resistance of none clinical E. coli strains from chicken in Nsukka, Southeastern Nigeria. Nig. J. Anim. Prodn. 2003;30:101-106.

38. Chah KF, Nweze NE. Antibiotics use in Nsukka, Southeastern Nigeria. Proc. 26th Ann. Conf. Nig. Soc. For Anim. Prod. (NSAP), March 18-22, Kaduna, Nigeria. 2001; pp: 67-72.


Repository Staff Only: item control page