Cogprints

THE CHILD AND THE WORLD: How Children acquire Language

Allott, Robin (2005) THE CHILD AND THE WORLD: How Children acquire Language. [Book Chapter]

Full text available as:

[img]
Preview
PDF
324Kb

Abstract

HOW CHILDREN ACQUIRE LANGUAGE Over the last few decades research into child language acquisition has been revolutionized by the use of ingenious new techniques which allow one to investigate what in fact infants (that is children not yet able to speak) can perceive when exposed to a stream of speech sound, the discriminations they can make between different speech sounds, differentspeech sound sequences and different words. However on the central features of the mystery, the extraordinarily rapid acquisition of lexicon and complex syntactic structures, little solid progress has been made. The questions being researched are how infants acquire and produce the speech sounds (phonemes) of the community language; how infants find words in the stream of speech; and how they link words to perceived objects or action, that is, discover meanings. In a recent general review in Nature of children's language acquisition, Patricia Kuhl also asked why we do not learn new languages as easily at 50 as at 5 and why computers have not cracked the human linguistic code. The motor theory of language function and origin makes possible a plausible account of child language acquisition generally from which answers can be derived also to these further questions. Why computers so far have been unable to 'crack' the language problem becomes apparent in the light of the motor theory account: computers can have no natural relation between words and their meanings; they have no conceptual store to which the network of words is linked nor do they have the innate aspects of language functioning - represented by function words; computers have no direct links between speech sounds and movement patterns and they do not have the instantly integrated neural patterning underlying thought - they necessarily operate serially and hierarchically. Adults find the acquisition of a new language much more difficult than children do because they are already neurally committed to the link between the words of their first language and the elements in their conceptual store. A second language being acquired by an adult is in direct competition for neural space with the network structures established for the first language.

Item Type:Book Chapter
Keywords:Motor theory, language acquisition, vision and thought, function words, sentence structure, articulatory gesture, Kant's categories
Subjects:Neuroscience > Neurolinguistics
Biology > Evolution
Linguistics > Comparative Linguistics
ID Code:4823
Deposited By:Allott, R M
Deposited On:08 Apr 2006
Last Modified:11 Mar 2011 08:56

References in Article

Select the SEEK icon to attempt to find the referenced article. If it does not appear to be in cogprints you will be forwarded to the paracite service. Poorly formated references will probably not work.

Bibliography and References

1. Allott, R. 1989. Diversity of Languages and the Motor Theory. In Studies in Language Origins III. Benjamins.

2. Allott, R. 1992. The Motor Theory of Language: Origin and Function. In Language Origin: A Multidisciplinary Approach. ed. by Jan Wind et al.

NATO ASI. Dordrecht: Kluwer.

3. Bates, E. 2000. On the nature and nurture of language. In E. Bizzi, P. Calissano, & V. Volterra (Eds.), The brain of homo sapiens. Rome: G.

Trecanni.

4. Bickerton, D. 1990. Language and Species. Chicago: UP

5. Bickerton, B. 1981. Roots of Language. Ann Arbor: Karoma.

6. Brosnahan, L.F. 1961. The Sounds of Language: An Inquiry into the role of genetic factors in the development of sound systems. Cambridge: Heffer.

7. Chomsky, N. 1988. Language and Problems of Knowledge. MIT.

8. Chomsky, N. 1993. The View from Building 20. In K. Hale and S.J. Keyser eds. MIT.

9. Chomsky, N. 2000. New Horizons in the Study of Language and Mind. CUP.

10. Deacon, T.W. 1997. The Symbolic Species: The Co-Evolution of Language and the Brain.Norton

11. Fromkin, V. 1997.Some thoughts about the brain/mind language interface. Lingua 100, 3-27.

12. Greenfield, P.M. 1991. Language, tools and brain: The ontogeny and phylogeny of hierarchically organized sequential behavior. Behavioral and

Brain Sciences 14: 531-595.

13. Hockett, C. F. 1987. Refurbishing our foundations: Elementary linguistics from an advanced point of view. Benjamins.

14. Holden, C. 2004. The Origin of Speech. Science 303:1316-1319

15. Hornstein, N. 1995. Logical Form: From GB to Minimalism. Oxford: Blackwell

16. Jackendoff, R. 2002. Foundations of language :brain, meaning, grammar, evolution. OUP.

17. Jakobson, R. 1972. Typological Studies and their contribution to historical comparative linguistics. In A Reader in Historical and Comparative

Linguistics ed. by A.R. Keiler, 299-305. Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

18. Lamb, S. 1999. Pathways of the brain: The neurocognitive basis of language. Benjamins.

19. Lashley, K. S. 1930. Basic neural mechanisms in behavior. Psychol Rev. 37, 1 24 .

20. Llinas, R. R. 2002. I of the Vortex: From Neurons to Self. MIT.

21. McNeill, D. 1979. The Conceptual Basis of Language. Erlbaum.

22. Penfield, W. and L. Roberts. 1959. Speech and Brain-Mechanisms. OUP.

23. Petitto, L.A. 2000. On The Biological Foundations of Human Language. In K. Emmorey and H.Lane (Eds.) The signs of language revisited.

Erlbaum.

24. Pinker, S. 1995. The Language Instinct: The New Science of Language and Mind. Penguin.

25. Pulvermüller, F. 2002. The Neuroscience of Language: On brain circuits and serial order. CUP.

26. Quine W.V. 1968. The inscrutability of reference. In Semantics: An interdisciplinary reader. eds. Steinberg & Jakobovits.

27. Rizzolatti, G, and Arbib, M.A 1998. Language within our Grasp. Trends in Neurosci. 21(5):188-194.

LANGUAGE ACQUISITION

28. Armon-Lotem S, Berman RA 2003. The emergence of grammar: early verbs and beyond. J Child Lang. 30(4):845-77

29. Bates E, Dick F. 2002. Language, gesture, and the developing brain. Dev Psychobiol. 2002 Apr;40(3):293-310.

30. Bower TG 1971.The object in the world of the infant. Scientific American 225: 30-38.

31. Boysson-Bardies, B. de 2001. How language comes to children. MIT .

32. Brown, R.W. 1976. A First Language: The Early Stages. Penguin.

33. Caselli,C., P. Casadio and E. Bates. 1999. A comparison of the transition from first words to grammar in English and Italian. J Child Lang. 26

(1999), 69 111.

34. Christophe A, Dupoux E, Bertoncini J, Mehler J. 1994. Do infants perceive word boundaries: An empirical study of the bootstrapping of lexical

acquisition.J Acoust Soc Am. 95(3):1570-80.

35. Christophe, A. Discovering words in the continuous speech stream: the role of prosody. Laboratoire de Sciences Cognitives et Psycholinguistique,

CNRS-EHESS, Paris

36. Halle, HA, T. Deguchi, Y. Tamekawa, B. Boysson-Bardies, & S. Kiritani. Word recognition by Japanese infants CNRS-Paris V.

37. Kuhl, P. 2004. Early Language Acquisition: Cracking the Speech Code. Nature 5: 831-843

38. Park, C.Cl. 1972. The Siege. Penguin.

39. Sachs BC, Gaillard WD. 2003. Organization of language networks in children: functional magnetic resonance imaging studies. Curr Neurol Neurosci

Rep. 3(2):157-62.

40. Saffran, JR, A. Senghas, and J.C. Trueswell. 2001. The acquisition of language by children. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 98 23 12874-12875.

41. Slobin D.I. ed. 1985. The Cross-Linguistic Study of Language Acquisition. Erlbaum.

42. Slobin, D.I. 1985. Cross-linguistic evidence for the Language-Making Capacity.In Slobin Vol 2: Theoretical Issues. 1157-1256.

43. Soderstrom, M. 2002. The acquisition of inflection morphology in early perceptual knowledge of syntax. Dissertation Johns Hopkins U.

44. Stager, CL & J.F. Werker. 1997. Infants listen for more phonetic detail in speech perception than in word-learning tasks. Nature 388 381

45. Trevarthen, C. 1994. Infant semiosis. In Origins of Semiosis: Sign Evolution in Nature and Culture. ed. W. Noth, 219-252. Mouton de Gruyter.

46. Trevarthen C. 2003. Language development: mechanisms in the brain. Encyclopedia of Neuroscience. 3rd Edition, Elsevier.

47. Werker JF, Cohen LB, Lloyd VL, Casasola M, Stager CL. 1998. Acquisition of word-object associations by 14-month-old infants. Dev Psychol. 34

(6):1289-309.

VISION

48. Aslin, R.N. 1982. Commentary. In The Scanning Patterns of Human Infants: Implications for Visual Learning. by G.W. Bronson, 103-123.

Norwood, N.J.: Ablex.

49. Bronson, G.W. 1982. The Scanning Patterns of Human Infants: Implications for Visual Learning. Ablex.

50. Buneo CA, Jarvis MR, Batista AP, Andersen RA. 2002. Direct visuomotor transformations for reaching. Nature 416:632-6.

51. Davson, H. 1976. The Eye: Visual function in man. Academic Press.

52. Ditchburn R.W. 1975. Eye Movements and Visual Perception. Clarendon.

53. Gibson J. J. 1966. The senses considered as perceptual systems. Houghton Mifflin.

54. Goodale, MA, LS Jakobson, P. Servos. 2000. The visual pathways mediating perception and prehension. In Neuroscience: A Reader. ed. by MS

Gazzaniga. Blackwell.

55. Gregory, R.L. 1976. Concepts and mechanisms of perception. Duckworth.

56. Heeger DJ 1999.Linking visual perception with human brain activity. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 9:474-479

57. Henderson, JM. 2003. Human gaze control during real-world scene perception Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7 11.

58. Hickok G, Poeppel D. 2004. Dorsal and ventral streams: a framework for understanding aspects of the functional anatomy of language. Cognition. 92

(1-2):67-99.

59. Ishai A,Ungerleider LG, Haxby JV. 2000. Distributed neural systems for the generation of visual images. Neuron. 28(3):979-90

60. Ishai A, Ungerleider LG, Martin A, Haxby JV. 2000. The representation of objects in the human occipital and temporal cortex. J Cogn Neurosci. 12

1

Suppl 2:35-51.

61. Johnson SP. 2004. Where Infants Look Determines How They See: Eye Movements and Object Perception Performance in 3-Month-Olds. Infancy 6

(2), 185-201

62. Khayat PS, H. Spekreijse, and P.R. Roelfsema. 2004. Correlates of transsaccadic integration in the primary visual cortex of the monkey. Proc Natl

Acad Sci U S A. 101(34):12712-7. f

63. Leigh RJ, Rottach KG, Das VE. 1997. Transforming sensory perceptions into motor commands: evidence from programming of eye movements.

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 19;835:353-62.

64. Meulen FF van der, Meyer AS, Levelt WJ. 2001. Eye movements during the production of nouns and pronouns. Mem Cognit. 29(3):512-21.

65. Noton. D. and L. Stark. 1971. Scanpaths in Eye Movements during Pattern Perception. Science 371 3968/308.

66. Scott, SH 2001 Vision to action: new insights from a flip of the wrist. Nature Neuroscience. 4 10 .

67. Sparks, D. L. 1986. Translation of sensory signals into commands for control of saccadic eye movements: role of primate superior colliculus. Physiol

Rev. 66 1181-72.

68. Sparks DL, Jay MF. 1986. The functional organization of the primate superior colliculus: a motor perspective. In Freund, U . Buttner, Cohen and

Noth Progress in Brain Research. 64:235-41.

69. Ungerleider, LG and JV Haxby. 1994.'What' and 'where' in the human brain. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 4:157-65.

70. Yarbus A. L. 1967. Eye Movements and Vision. Plenum.

71. Zingale, C.W. and E. Kowler. 1987. Planning sequences of saccades. Vision Research. 27, 1327-1341.

MOTOR ASPECTS

72. Bernstein, N. 1967. The Coordination and regulation of Movements. Pergamon.

73. Berthoz, A. 1997. Le Sens du Mouvement. Paris: Editions Odile Jacob Trans. 2000 as The brain's sense of movement. Harvard UP.

74. Calvin, W. 1992. Evolving mixed-media messages and grammatical language: Secondary uses of the neural sequencing machinery needed for

ballistic movements. In Language Origin: A Multidisciplinary Approach. ed. Jan Wind et al. NATO ASI. Kluwer.

75. Cromwell HC, Berridge KC.1996. Implementation of action sequences by a neostriatal site: a lesion mapping study of grooming syntax. J Neurosci.

16(10):3444-58.

76. Floel, A., T. Ellger, C. Breitenstein, S. Knecht. 2003. Language perception activates the hand motor cortex: implications for motor theories of speech

perception. European Journal of Neuroscience 18 704-708

77. Gentilucci M, Benuzzi F, Bertolani L, Daprati E, Gangitano M. 2000. Language and motor control. Exp Brain Res. 133(4):468-90.

78. Gentilucci M. 2003. Object motor representation and language. Exp Brain Res. 153(2):260-5.

79. Glenberg AM, Kaschak MP. 2002. Grounding language in action. Psychon Bull Rev. 9(3):558-65.

80. Glover S, Rosenbaum DA, Graham J, Dixon P. 2004. Grasping the meaning of words. Exp Brain Res. 154(1):103-8.

81. Gracco, V.L. 1992. Characteristics of speech as a motor control system. SR- 110: 13-26. Haskins Laboratories.

82. Graziano MSA, Taylor CSR, Moore T. 2002. Complex movements evoked by microstimulation of precentral cortex. Neuron 34 841-851

83. Graziano MSA, Taylor CSR, Moore T, Cooke DF. 2002. The cortical control of movement revisited. Neuron 36 349-362.

84. Hammond, G.R. ed. 1990. Cerebral Control of Speech and Limb Movements. OUP.

85. Hughes OM, Abbs JH. 1976. Labial-mandibular coordination in the production of speech: implications for the operation of motor equivalence.

Phonetica 33(3):199-221.

86. Kelso JAS, Fuchs A, Lancaster R, Holroyd T, Cheyne D, Weinberg H. 1998. Dynamic cortical activity in the human brain reveals motor

equivalence. Nature 392(6678):814-8.

87. Kendon, A. 1972. Some Relationships between Body Motion and Speech: An Analysis of one example. In Siegman, AW and B Pope eds. Studies in

Dyadic Communication 177-210. Pergamon.

88. Kimura D. 1973. Manual activity during speaking. Neuropsychologia 11: 45-55.

89. Kimura, D. 1976. The neural basis of language qua gesture. In Studies in Neurolinguistics. ed. H. Whitaker, 145-156. Academic Press.

90. Kohler, E., C., Keysers, M.A., Umilta, L., Fogassi, V., Gallese and G. Rizzolatti. 2002. Hearing Sounds Understanding Actions: Action

Representation in Mirror Neurons. Science 297 846-8.

91. Lafuente V, Romo R. 2004. Language abilities of motor cortex. Neuron. 41(2):178-80.

92. Marteniuk RG, Bertram CP. 2001. Contributions of gait and trunk movements to prehension: perspectives from world- and body-centered

coordinates. Motor Control 5(2):151-65

93. McNeill, D. 1980. Iconic relation between language and motor action. In The Signifying Animal ed. by I. Rauch and J.F. Carr, pp. 240-251. Indiana

UP.

94. Meltzoff, A. N., Moore, M. K. 1977. Imitation of facial and manual gestures by human neonates. Science 198:75-78.

95. Meltzoff, A. N. , Moore, M. K. 1980. Child Development 54, 702-709.

96. Munhall, G. 1994. Review of Hammond, Geoffrey R. ed. 1990. Cerebral Control of Speech and Limb Movements. Brain and Language 46: 174-177.

97. Nemire, K. and B. Bridgeman. 1987. Oculomotor and skeletal motor systems share one map of visual space. Vision Research 26.

98. Ostry DJ, Keller E, Parush A. 1983. Similarities in the control of the speech articulators and the limbs: kinematics of tongue dorsum movement in

speech. Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform1 9(4) :622-36.

99. Ostry, D.J. and J.D. Cooke. 1987. Kinematic Patterns in Speech and Limb Movements In Motor and Sensory Processes of Language ed. by E.Keller.

and M Gopnik, 223-235. Erlbaum

100. Perkell, J.S., M. L. Matthies M. A. Svirsky M. I. Jordan. 1993. Motor equivalence in the transformation from vocal-tract configurations to the

acoustic transfer function: Adaptation to a bite block. ASA 126th Meeting 1993 Denver 4-8.

101. Rijntjes M, Dettmers C, Buchei C, Kiebel S, Frackoviak J, Weiller C. 1999. A blueprint for movement: Functional and anatomical representations in

the human motor system. J Neurosci. 19(18):8043-8.

102. Smith, B.L., A. McLean-Muse 1987. An investigation of motor equivalence in the speech of children and adults. J Acoust Soc Am. 82 3 837-842.

103. Stowe LA, Paans AM, Wijers AA, Zwarts F. 2004. Activations of "motor" and other non-language structures during sentence comprehension. Brain

Lang. 89(2):290-9.

104. Wing, AM. 2000. Motor control: Mechanisms of motor equivalence in handwriting. Curr Biol 10(6):245-8.

NEUROIMAGING AND LESION STUDIES

105. Berridge KC, Fentress JC. 1987. Deafferentation does not disrupt natural rules of action syntax. Behav Brain Res. 23(1):69-76.

106. Capek CM, Bavelier D, Corina D, Newman AJ, Jezzard P, Neville HJ. 2004. The cortical organization of audio-visual sentence comprehension: an

fMRI study at 4 Tesla. Brain Res Cogn Brain Res. 20(2):111-9.

107. Chao LL, Haxby JV, Martin A. 1999. Attribute-based neural substrates in temporal cortex for perceiving and knowing about objects. Nat Neurosci. 2

(10):913-9.

108. Damasio AR, Tranel D. 1993. Nouns and verbs are retrieved with differently distributed neural systems. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 90(11):4957-60.

109. Decety, J. ed. 2000. Cerveau, Perception et Action Psychologie française. Tome 45 4.

110. Decety, J., T. Chaminade, J. GrÀ,° Àzes and A.N. Meltzoff. 2002. A PET exploration of the neural mechanisms involved in reciprocal imitation.

Neuroimage. 15 (1)265-272.

111. Dehaene S. 1995. Electrophysiological evidence for category-specific word processing in the normal human brain. Neuroreport 6(16):2153-7

112. Démonet, JF, G Thierry and D Cardebat. 2005. Renewal of the Neurophysiology of Language: Functional Neuroimaging. Physiol Rev. 85: 49-95.

113. Dronkers NF, Wilkins DP, Van Valin RD Jr, Redfern BB, Jaeger JJ. 2004. Lesion analysis of the brain areas involved in language comprehension.

2

Cognition. 92(1-2):145-77.

114. Ettlinger, G. 1967. Analysis of cross-modal effects and their relationship to language. In Brain Mechanisms Underlying Speech and Language ed. by

C.G. Millikan and F.L. Darley, 53-60. Grune & Stratton.

115. Freund H-J, U . Buttner, B . Cohen and J. Noth. 1986. Progress in Brain Research, Vol 64 Elsevier

116. Grill-Spector K, Kourtzi Z, Kanwisher N. 2001. The lateral occipital complex and its role in object recognition. Vision Res. 41(10-11):1409-22.

117. Grill-Spector K. 2003. The neural basis of object perception. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 13(2):159-66.

118. Grodzinsky Y. 2000. The neurology of syntax: language use without Broca's area. Behav Brain Sci. 23(1):1-21.

119. Hagoort,P., L. Hald, M. Bastiaansen, K.M.Petersson. 2004. Integration of Word Meaning and World Knowledge in Language Comprehension.

Science 304: 438

120. Haxby, J.V, MI. Gobbini, M.L Gurey, A. Ishai, J.L Schouten, P. Pietrini. 2001. Distributed and overlapping representations of faces and objects in

ventral temporal cortex. Science 293 28 2425-2470.

121. Hommel, B., Müsseler, J., Aschersleben, G. & Prinz, W. 2001. The Theory of Event Coding: A Framework for Perception and Action Planning

Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24

122. Hotz, R.L. 1996. Study reveals complex map of brain's 'dictionary'. New York Times on paper by H. & A.R. Damasio in Nature. April 11, 1996 .

123. Howard, D. 1985. Agrammatism. In Current perspectives in Dysphasia ed. S. Newman and R. Epstein, 1-31. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.

124. Hurley, S. 2001. Perception and action: alternative views. Synthese 129 (2001) 3-40.

125. Indefrey, P, CM Brown, F Hellwig, K Amunta, H Herzog, RJ Seitz, and P Hagoort. 2001. A neural correlate of syntactic encoding during speech

production. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 98 (10) 5933-5936.

126. Indefrey P, Levelt WJ. 2004. The spatial and temporal signatures of word production components. Cognition 92(1-2):101-44.

127. Keller TA, Carpenter PA, Just MA. 2001. The neural bases of sentence comprehension: a fMRI examination of syntactic and lexical processing.

Cereb Cortex 11(3):223-37.

128. Kourtzi, Z. and N. Kanwisher Cortical Regions Involved in Perceiving Object Shape. Department of Brain and Cognitive Science, MIT.

129. Kourtzi Z, Kanwisher N. 2001. Representation of perceived object shape by the human lateral occipital complex. Science 293(5534):1506-9.

130. Lashley, K.S. 1951. The problem of serial order in behavior. In Cerebral Mechanisms in Behavior ed. by L.A. Jeffress, 112- 135. Hafner.

131. Marin, O.S.M., E.M. Saffran and M.F. Schwartz. 1976. Dissociations of language in aphasia. In Annals of NY Acad Sciences. 289, 868-884.

132. Martin RC. 2003. Language processing: functional organization and neuroanatomical basis. Annu Rev Psychol 54:55-89.

133. Martin A, Chao LL. 2001. Semantic memory and the brain: structure and processes. Curr Opin Neurobiol 11(2):194-201.

134. Martin A, Haxby JV, Lalonde FM, Wiggs CL, Ungerleider LG. 1995. Discrete cortical regions associated with knowledge of color and knowledge of

action. Science 270(5233):102-5.

135. Moro A, Tettamanti M, Perani D, Donati C, Cappa SF, Fazio F 2001. Syntax and the Brain: Disentangling Grammar by Selective Anomalies.

Neuroimage 13(1):110-118.

136. Ni W, Constable RT, Mencl WE, Pugh KR, Fulbright RK, Shaywitz SE, Shaywitz BA, Gore JC, Shankweiler D. 2000. An event-related

neuroimaging study distinguishing form and content in sentence processing. J Cogn Neurosci 12(1):120-33.

137. Ojemann, G.A. 1983. Brain organisation for language from the perspective of electrical stimulation mapping. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6, 189-

230.

138. Ojemann, G.A. 1990. Cortical organisation of language and verbal memory based on intraoperative investigation. In Progress in Sensory Physiology

12 ed. D. Ottoson, 193-230. Springer-Verlag.

139. Perani D, Cappa SF, Schnur T, Tettamanti M, Collina S, Rosa MM, Fazio F. 1999. The neural correlates of verb and noun processing. A PET study.

Brain 122 (12):2337-44.

140. Pietrini P, Furey ML, Ricciardi E, Gobbini MI, Wu WH, Cohen L, Guazzelli M, Haxby JV. 2004. Beyond sensory images: Object-based

representation in the human ventral pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101(15):5658-63.

141. Pizzamiglio L, Aprile T, Spitoni G, Pitzalis S, Bates E, D'Amico S, Di Russo F. 2005. Separate neural systems for processing action- or non-actionrelated

sounds. Neuroimage 24(3):852-61.

142. Preissl H, Pulvermüller F, Lutzenberger W, Birbaumer N. 1995. Evoked potentials distinguish between nouns and verbs. Neurosci Lett 197(1):81-3

143. Pulvermüller F, Lutzenberger W, Preissl H. 1990. Nouns and verbs in the intact brain: evidence from event-related potentials and high-frequency

cortical responses. Cereb Cortex 9(5):497-506

144. Pulvermüller, F. 1993. On connecting syntax and the brain. In Brain theory spatio-temporal aspects of brain function ed. Aertsen, A., 131-145.

Elsevier.

145. Pulvermüller, F. 1999. Words in the Brain's Language. Brain and Behavioral Sciences 22, 2, 253-279

146. Sakai KL, Hashimoto R, Homae F. 2001. Sentence processing in the cerebral cortex. Neurosci Res 39(1):1-10.

147. Sakai KL, Homae F, Hashimoto R. 2003. Sentence processing is uniquely human. Neurosci Res 46(3):273-9.

148. Saygin AP, Wilson SM, Dronkers NF, Bates E. 2004. Action comprehension in aphasia: linguistic and non-linguistic deficits and their lesion

correlates. Neuropsychologia 42(13):1788-804

149. Serences JT, Schwarzbach J, Courtney SM, Golay X, Yantis S. 2004. Control of object-based attention in human cortex. Cereb Cortex 14(12):1346-

57.

150. Wartenburger I, Heekeren HR, Burchert F, Heinemann S, De Bleser R, Villringer A. 2004. Neural correlates of syntactic transformations. Hum Brain

Mapp 22(1):72-81.

151. Welchman, A.E., Deubelius, A. and Kourtzi, Z. 2003. Perceptual versus cue-based shape representation in the human visual brain. Journal of

Neuroscience 6 599.

152. Wood, JN and J Grafman 2003. Cortex: processing and representational perspectives. Nature reviews Neuroscience 4 139.

153. Zhou YD, Fuster JM. 2000. Visuo-tactile cross-modal associations in cortical somatosensory cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97(17):9777-82.

154. Zurif, E.B. 1983. Aspects of sentence processing in aphasia. In Psychobiology of Language ed. M. Studdert-Kennedy, 188-194. MIT .

SPEECH

155. Browman, C.P. and L. Goldstein.1991. Gestural Structures: Distinctiveness, Phonological Processes, and Historical Change. In Modularity and the

Motor Theory of Speech Perception ed. by Mattingly, IM and M Studdert-Kennedy, 313-338.

156. Browman, C.P. and L. Goldstein. 1992. Articulatory phonology: An overview. Phonetica 49: 155-180.

157. Burdick, C.K. & J.B. Miller. 1975. Speech perception by the chinchilla. J Acoust Soc Am 58: 415-427

158. Catford, J.C. 1982. Fundamental Problems in Phonetics Edinburgh UP.

159. Fadiga, L., G. Craighero, G. Buccino and G. Rizzolatti. 2002. Speech listening specifically modulates the excitability of tongue muscles: a TMS

study. European Journal of Neuroscience 15 399-402.

160. Fiez, JA. 2001. Neuroimaging studies of speech: An overview of techniques and methodological approaches Journal of Communication Disorders

34 445-454

161. Jürgens, U. 2000. A comparison of the neural systems underlying speech and nonspeech vocal utterances. In Becoming Loquens eds. BH Bichakjian,

T. Chernigovskaya, A. Kendon, A. Moller pp. 1-13. Peter Lang.

162. Levelt WJ, Roelofs A, Meyer AS. 1999. A theory of lexical access in speech production. Behav Brain Sci 22(1):1-38.

163. Levelt WJ. 2001. Spoken word production: a theory of lexical access. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98(23):13464-71

164. Liberman, A.M., F.S. Cooper, D.S. Shankweiler and M. Studdert-Kennedy. 1967. Perception of the speech code. Psychological Review 74:431-461.

165. Lillo-Martin, D, W.Snyder. 2002. Cross-linguistic study of early syntax. Haskins Laboratories.

166. Løfqvist, A. 1990. Speech as audible gestures. In W. J. Hardcastle & A. Marchal eds. Speech Production and Speech Modelling Kluwer.

167. Lu CC, Bates E, Hung D, Tzeng O, Hsu J, Tsai CH, Roe K. 2001. Syntactic priming of nouns and verbs in Chinese. Lang Speech 44 437-71.

168. Morse, P.A. 1976. Speech perception in the human infant and the Rhesus monkey. In Annals of the NY Acad Sciences 280 694-707.

169. Tremblay S, Shiller DM, Ostry DJ. 2003. Somatosensory basis of speech production. Nature 423(6942):866-9.

3

INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES

170. Bates, E., Dale, P.S. and Thal, D. 1995. Individual differences and their implications for theories of language development. In P. Fletcher & B.

MacWhinney (Eds.), Handbook of child language, 96-151. Basil Blackwell.

171. Davidoff J. B. 1975. Differences in Visual Perception The Individual Eye Crosby Lockwood Staples.

172. Friedlaender, J.S. 1976. Patterns of Human Variation Harvard UP.

173. Osgood, C.E. 1971. Where do sentences come from? In Semantics: An inter-disciplinary reader ed. D.D. Steinberg & L.A. Jakobovits, 497-529.

CUP.

174. Segall, MH, DT Campbell and MJ Herskovits. 1966. The Influence of Culture on Visual Perception Bobbs-Merrill

PHILOSOPHY

175. Churchland, P. 1996. Neurophilosophy: Towards a Unified Science of the Mind- Brain MIT.

176. Kant, I. 1781. Critique of Pure Reason 1st edition. Trans. F. Max Müller. Doubleday 1966.

177. Kant, I. 1787. Critique of Pure Reason 2nd edition. Trans. JMD Meiklejohn. JM Dent 1934.

178. Kant, I. 1781/1787. Critique of Pure Reason Trans. N. Kemp Smith. Macmillan. 2003.

179. Sellars, W. 1978. The role of the imagination in Kant's theory of experience. In Categories: A Colloquium, ed. by H.W. Johnstone, Jr. Pennsylvania

State UP.

180. Velmans, M. 2000. Understanding consciousness Routledge.

181. Wittgenstein, L. 1960. The Blue and Brown Books Oxford: Blackwell.

182. Wittgenstein, L. 1961.Notebooks 1914-1916. Oxford: Blackwell]

Metadata

Repository Staff Only: item control page