Dimensional approaches to experimental psychopathology of schizophrenia: shift learning and report of psychotic-like experiences in college students

Tsakanikos, Elias and Reed, Phil (2005) Dimensional approaches to experimental psychopathology of schizophrenia: shift learning and report of psychotic-like experiences in college students. [Journal (Paginated)]

Full text available as:



Adopting a dimensional approach to experimental psychopathology, and taking into account inconsistencies in the previous literature, we examined whether reports of psychotic-like experiences in undergraduate students were associated with shift-learning deficits, akin to those seen in schizophrenia. The participants (N=72) were tested on a new compound stimulus discrimination task (CSDT) before and after a target shift, and were administered a multi-dimensional schizotypy inventory (O-LIFE). Performance impairment following a target shift was associated with the negative (Introvertive Anhedonia) and the impulsive (Impulsive Non-conformity) dimension of schizotypy, but not with the positive (Unusual Experiences), nor the disorganised (Cognitive Disorganisation) dimension. None of the schizotypy measures were associated with performance on discrimination learning before the target shift. The obtained results are in line with past evidence that shift learning is associated with the severity of the negative symptomatology of schizophrenia. The possibility that psychotic-like features may contribute differentially to performance deficits across successive stages of learning is considered.

Item Type:Journal (Paginated)
Keywords:Attentional set shifting; Concept learning; Negative Schizotypy; Reversal shift learning; Rule learning; Social/interpersonal deficits; Stimulus discrimination;
Subjects:Neuroscience > Neuropsychiatry
ID Code:4591
Deposited By:Tsakanikos, E.
Deposited On:12 Nov 2005
Last Modified:11 Mar 2011 08:56

References in Article

Select the SEEK icon to attempt to find the referenced article. If it does not appear to be in cogprints you will be forwarded to the paracite service. Poorly formated references will probably not work.

Abbruzzese, M., Ferri, S., & Scarone, S. (1997). The selective breakdown of frontal functions in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and in patients with schizophrenia: a double dissociation experimental finding. Neuropsychologia, 35, 907-912.

Amsel, A. (1992). Frustration theory: an analysis of dispositional learning and memory. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

Barcelo, F., & Knight, R. T. (2002). Both random and perspective errors underlie WCST deficits in prefrontal patients. Neuropsychologia, 40, 349-356.

Berman, I., Viegner, B., Merson, A., Allan, E., Pappas, D., & Green, A. I. (1997). Differential relationships between positive and negative symptoms and neuropsychological deficits in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 25, 1-10.

Burch, G. S., Steel, C., & Hemsley, D. R. (1998). Oxford–Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences: reliability in an experimental population. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 37, 107-108.

Butler, R. W., Jenkins, M. A., Sprock, J., & Braff, D. L. (1992). Wisconsin Card Sorting Test deficits in chronic paranoid schizophrenia: evidence for a relatively discrete subgroup? Schizophrenia Research, 7, 169-176.

Collins, A. A., Remington, G. J., Coulter, K., & Birkett, K. (1997). Insight, neurocognitive function and symptom clusters in chronic schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 27, 37-44.

Costello, C.G., 1994. Two dimensional views of psychopathology. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 32, 391-402.

Crider, A. (1997). Perseveration in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 23, 63-74.

Daneluzzo, E., Bustini, M., Stratta, P., Casacchia, M., & Rossi, A. (1998). Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test in a population of DSM-III-R schizophrenic patients and control subjects. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 39, 143-148.

Elliott, R., McKenna, P. J., Robbins, T. W., & Sahakian, B. I. (1998). Specific neuropsychological deficits in schizophrenia patients with preserved intellectual function. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, 3,45-70.

Franke, P., Maier, W., Hain, C., & Klingler, T. (1992). Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: an indicator of vulnerability to schizophrenia? Schizophrenia Research, 6, 243-249.

Goldman, R. S., Axelrod, B. N., & Tompkins, L. M. (1992). Effect of instructional cues on schizophrenic patients' performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. American Journal of Psychiatry, 149, 1718-1722.

Goodarzi, M. A., Wykes, T., & Hemsley, D. R. (2000). Cerebral lateralization of global-local processing in people with schizotypy. Schizophrenia Research, 45, 115-121.

Gooding, D. C., Kwapil, T. R., & Tallent, K. A (1999). Wisconsin Card Sorting Test deficits in schizotypic individuals. Schizophrenia Research, 40, 201-209.

Gooding, D. C., Tallent, K. A., & Hegyi, J. V. (2001). Cognitive slippage in schizotypic individuals. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 189, 750-756.

Gray, N. S., Fernandez, M., Williams, J., Ruddle, R. A., & Snowden, R. J. (2002). Which schizotypal dimensions abolish latent inhibition? British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 41, 271-284.

Joyce, E., Hutton, S., Mutsatsa, S., Gibbins, H., Webb, E., Paul, S., Robbins, T., & Barnes, T. (2002). Executive dysfunction in first-episode schizophrenia and relationship to duration of untreated psychosis: the west London study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 181, 38-44.

Jentsch, J. D., & Taylor, J. R. (2001). Impaired inhibition of conditioned responses produced by subchronic administration of phencyclidine to rats. Neuropsychopharmacology, 24, 66-74.

Kern, R. S., Wallace, C. J., Hellman, S. G., Womack, L. M., & Green M. F. (1996). A training procedure for remediating WCST deficits in chronic psychotic patients: an adaptation of errorless learning principles. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 30, 283-294.

Laurent, A., Duly, D., Murry, P., Foussard, N., Boccara, S., Mingat, F., Dalery, J., & d'Amato, T. (2001). WCST performance and schizotypal features in the first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research, 104, 133-144.

Lenzenweger, M. F., & Korfine, L. (1994). Perceptual aberrations, schizotypy, and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 20, 345-357.

Merckelbach H., & van de Ven, V. (2001). Another White Christmas: fantasy proneness and reports of `hallucinatory experiences' in undergraduate students. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 32,137-144.

Mason, O., Claridge, G., & Jackson, M. (1995). New scales for the assessment of schizotypy. Personality and Individual Differences, 18, 7-13.

Moser, P. C., Hitchcock, J. M., Lister, S., & Moran, P. M. (2000). The pharmacology of latent inhibition as an animal model of schizophrenia. Brain Research Reviews, 33, 275-307.

Oades, R. D., & Sartory, G. (1997). The problems of inattention: methods and interpretations. Behavioural Brain Research, 88, 3-10.

Pantelis, C., Harvey, C. A., Plant, G., Fossey, E., Maruff, P., Stuart, G. W., Brewer, W. J., Nelson, H. E., Robbins, T. W., & Barnes, T. R. E. (2004). Relationship of behavioural and symptomatic syndromes in schizophrenia to spatial working memory and attentional set-shifting ability. Psychological Medicine, 34, 693-703.

Poreh, A. M., Ross, T. P., & Whitman, R. D. (1995). Re-examination of executive functions in psychosis-prone college students. Personality and Individual Differences, 18, 535-539.

Raine, A., Sheard, C., Reynolds, G. P., & Lencz, T. (1992). Pre-frontal structural and functional deficits associated with individual differences in schizotypal personality. Schizophrenia Research,7, 237-247.

Reitan, R. M., & Wolfson, D. (1994). A selective and critical review of neuropsychological deficits and the frontal lobes. Neuropsychology Review, 4, 161-198.

Steel, C., Hemsley, D. R., & Pickering, A. D. (2002). Distractor cueing effects on choice reaction time and their relationship with schizotypal personality. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 41, 143-156.

Suhr, J. A. (1997). Executive functioning deficits in hypothetically psychosis-prone college students. Schizophrenia Research, 27, 29-35.

Suhr, J. A., Spitznagel, M.B. (2001). Factor versus cluster models of schizotypal traits II: relation to neuropsychological impairment. Schizophrenia Research, 52, 241-250.

Tallent, K. A., & Gooding, D. C. (1999). Working memory and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance in schizotypic individuals: a replication and extension. Psychiatry Research, 89,161-170.

Tsakanikos, E., & Reed, P. (2003). Visuo-spatial processing and dimensions of schizotypy: figure-ground segregation as a function of psychotic-like features. Personality and Individual Differences, 35, 703-712.

Voruganti, L. N. P., Heslegrave, R.J., & Awad, A. G. (1997). Neurocognitive correlates of positive and negative syndromes in schizophrenia. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 42, 1066-1071.


Repository Staff Only: item control page