Cogprints

Seeing words that are not there: Detection biases in schizotypy

Elias, Tsakanikos and Phil, Reed (2005) Seeing words that are not there: Detection biases in schizotypy. [Journal (Paginated)]

Full text available as:

[img]
Preview
PDF
86Kb

Abstract

Objective. The present studies introduced a novel word-detection paradigm to examine detection biases as a function of different schizotypy dimensions in a sample of undergraduate students. Method. The participants (N = 80) were asked to detect fast moving (8 frames/sec) words among simultaneously moving non-words. Results. Positive schizotypy was associated with a tendency to report words that never appeared in the trials. This effect was independent of task order, impulsivity and social desirability. None of the schizotypy measures was associated with correct words (detection accuracy). Conclusions. It is inferred that a bias to report events in the absence of corresponding events may constitute a cross-modal mechanism responsible for translating internally generated experiences into perceptual experiences.

Item Type:Journal (Paginated)
Keywords:Cognitive biases; Delusions; False perceptual experiences; Hallucinations; Positive symptoms of schizophrenia; Schizotypy
Subjects:Neuroscience > Neuropsychology
Neuroscience > Neuropsychiatry
ID Code:4590
Deposited By:Tsakanikos, E.
Deposited On:12 Nov 2005
Last Modified:11 Mar 2011 08:56

References in Article

Select the SEEK icon to attempt to find the referenced article. If it does not appear to be in cogprints you will be forwarded to the paracite service. Poorly formated references will probably not work.

Bentall, R. P., & Slade, P. D. (1985). Reality testing and auditory hallucinations: a signal detection analysis. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 24, 159 -169.

Behrendt, R. P. (1998). Under-constrained perception: a theoretical approach to the nature and function of verbal hallucinations. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 39, 236-248.

Boecker, K. B. E., Hijman, R., Kahn, R. S., & De Haan, E. H. F. (2000). Perception, mental imagery and reality discrimination in hallucinating and non-hallucinating schizophrenic patients. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 39, 397-406.

Cahill, C., & Silbersweig, D., & Frith, C. (1996). Psychotic experiences induced in deluded patients using distorted auditory feedback. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, 1, 201-211.

Dudley, R. E. J., John, C. H., Young, A. W., & Over, D. E. (1997). Normal and abnormal reasoning in people with delusions. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 36, 243-258.

Eysenck, H. J., & Eysenck, S. B. G. (1975). Manual of the Eysenck personality questionnaire. London: Hodder and Stoughton.

Feelgood S. R., & Rantzen A. S. (1994). Auditory and visual hallucinations in university students. Personality and Individual Differences, 17, 293-296.

Franck, N., Rouby, P., Daprati, E., Dalery, J., Marie-Cardine, M., & Georgieff, N. (2000). Confusion between silent and overt reading in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 41, 357-364.

Gallagher, A. G., Dinan, T. G., & Baker, L. V. J. (1995). The effects of varying information content and speaking aloud on auditory hallucinations. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 68, 143-155.

Garety, P. A., Hemsley, D. R., & Wessely, S. (1991). Reasoning in deluded schizophrenic and paranoid patients: biases in performance on a probabilistic inference task. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 179, 194-201.

Garety, P. A., Fowler, D., & Kuipers, E. (2000). Cognitive-behavioural therapy for people with psychosis. In Martindale, B. & Bateman, A. (Eds). Psychosis: psychological approaches and their effectiveness (pp. 30-49). London, England: Gaskell/Royal College of Psychiatrists.

Garety, P. A., Kuipers, E., Fowler, D., Freeman, D., & Bebbington, P. E. (2001). A cognitive model of the positive symptoms of psychosis. Psychological Medicine, 31, 189 -195.

Grossberg, S. (2000). How hallucinations may arise from brain mechanisms of learning, attention, and volition. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 6, 583-592.

Heilbrun, A. B., & Blum, N. A. (1984). Cognitive vulnerability to auditory hallucination: impaired perception of meaning. British Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 508-512.

Huq, S. F., Garety, P. A., & Hemsley, D. R. (1988). Probabilistic judgements in deluded and non-deluded subjects. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Experimental Psychology, 40, 801-812.

Jakes, S., & Hemsley D.R. (1986). Individual differences in reaction to brief exposure to unpatterned visual stimulation. Personality and Individual Differences, 7, 121-123.

Kemp, R., Chua, S., McKenna, P., & David, A. (1997). Reasoning and delusions. British Journal of Psychiatry, 170, 398-405.

Liddle, P. (1987). The symptoms of chronic schizophrenia: a re-examination of the positive - negative dichotomy. British Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 221-234.

Mason, O., Claridge, G., & Jackson, M. (1995). New scales for the assessment of schizotypy. Personality and Individual Differences, 53, 727-730.

Miller, E. N., & Chapman, L. J. (1983). Continued word association in hypothetically psychosis-prone college students. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 92, 468-478.

Rankin, P. M., & O’ Carroll, P. J. (1995). Reality discrimination, reality monitoring and disposition towards hallucination. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 34, 517-528.

Metadata

Repository Staff Only: item control page