Systems psychiatry, psychiatrie systémale; Collective and egoless consciousness; Language and cognition; Science and spirituality; Emptiness, shuunyataa; Inner voice experience; Stereotyped, fragmented, and disintegrated behaviour; Dopamine hypothesis of psychosis

Interdisciplinary Psychiatry and Idealist Philosophy

CIRIP, International Center for Interdisciplinary Psychiatric Research

A research center without walls

Centre International de Recherche Interdisciplinaire en Psychiatrie

Bygaden 24 B,Svog.DK-4000 Roskilde,Denmark (Axel Randrup)
33 Rue Lacépède, F-75005 Paris,France (Pierre Marchais)
Letters to the editor,Axel Randrup:

For a complete list of the publications from CIRIP see:

For full text papers on idealist philosophy, click here: CIRIP, Idealist Philosophy

Update September 15, 2005

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Idealist Philosophy: What is Real ? Conscious Experience Seen as Basic to All Ontology. An Overview

CIRIP, Idealist Philosophy

Collective Consciousness and Idealist Philosophy

Conscious Experience, Existence and Behaviour: Significance of Consciousness in Human Life

Cognition and Biological Evolution: An Idealist Approach Resolves a Fundamental Paradox

Science and Spirituality

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Some significant printed publications from the Center

Du rôle des techniques contemporaines sur l'évolution de la psychiatrie

On the role of modern techniques relative to the evolution of psychiatry

Annales Médico-Psychologiques 163 (2005) 222-229

by P. Marchais

Keywords: Criteriology; Cybernetics; Epistemology; Informatics; Methodology; Systemal approach; Systemics; Technics

Confronted with the new technics (cybernetics and informatics) psychiatry has developed new trends. Criteriology,which originates from informatics, intends to be pragmatic and atheoretic. In an objective way it partitions the mental disturbances into items distributed among several axes, and in this way it accentuates the mechanistic character of the psychic functioning. It builds authority by trying to diminish the divergences among the classical Schools, thus facilitating communication and research, but it neglects the functional integration of the psychic system. Systemics, influenced by cybernetics, directs itself towards the totality of psychic functioning and removes all reductionism, favouring a constructivist conception of the disturbances in a network, giving priviledge to holism at the expense of local determinism. The systems approach integrates cybernetics and informatics and considers the whole system as well as the local determinisms. It is based on the clinic, from which it tries to extracf the great invariants, that permits a vital reconstitution of the disturbances. It does this by means of logical-mathematical matrices, both holistic and categorical, which assure the validity and the progress of the systems approach. A synoptic picture reuniting the salient traits of these trends exhibit their differences and concordances and shows the underlying structures at several levels of reality.


Du processus décisionnel en psychiatrie clinique

The process of making decision in psychiatry

Annales Médico-Psychologiques 163 (2005) 148-155

by P. Marchais

Key-words: Action; Activation; Complexity; Decision; Inhibition; Model

In psychiatry, the process of making decisions is a complex executive function of thought, which cannot be reduced to a rational choice only. It also affects perceptions, memory, emotion, affectivity, and the milieu. In a general way, this proces is characterized by its multiple aspects, its varied objectives, and its meaning, which leads to multiple interactions between the patient,the observer, and the milieu.


D'un concept opératoire controversé: le tiers-inclus, opérateur d'intégration

On a controversial operative concept: the third-included, an operator of integration

Annales Médico-Psychologiques 163 (2005) 58-64

by P. Marchais

Keywords: Experiment with thought; Integration; Mixed states; Psychotherapies; Third-excluded; Third-included

The growing complexity of our knowledge necessisates recourse to new tools of thinking. The third-included incites to make studies of the organizing factors of a system situated in its environment, and it allows reconsiderario of the nature of complex clinical states (mixed states, atypic forms, schizophrenias ...). It helps to specify the links between holisme and reductionisme.


Le graphe en psychiatrie. Intérêt topologoque

The graph in psychiatry

Annales Médico-Psychologiques 162 (2004) 813-820

by P. Marchais

Keywords: Graph; Representation; Research; Systemal method; Topology

The growing complexity of the problems in psychiatry requires new tools for the study. The graph is useful because of its capacity for quantitative and qualitative exposition of the mental disorders and its role for mediating and supporting research.


L'angoisse et l'anxiété. Variations conceptuelles. Ouverture à la théorie des catégories
Anguish and anxiety. Conceptual variations. About category theory

Annales Médico-Psychologiques 162 (2004) 196-202

by P. Marchais

Key-words: Anguish; Anxiety; Epistemology; Links; Mathematics; Category theory

Anxiety is a well-known manifestation. Its conceptual exposition has varied in the course of history, dependent on the frame of reference and the cultural orientations. Four different conceptions and four correspondent frames of reference are succinctly recalled: classical, psychoanalytic, criteriological, and holistic. The clinical conceptions can be still more refined by the use of category theory. The properties of this theory permits clarification of the functional structure of these troubles, particularly by analysis of their relations, simple as well as complex, at the various successive moments of their evolution. This theory also incites applications with the other pathologic formations which are linked with anxiety. Finslly, the author specifies the advantages of this conception: better appreciation of the classical , modern, and research clinical work, more precise study of the mobility and change of these disturbances, possibility of nosologic extension, appreciable epistemologic interest.


Création artistique et sémiotique. Rapports avec le trouble mental

Artistic creation and semiotics. Relations with mental disturbance

Annales Médico-Psychologiques 161 (2003) 596-602

by P. Marchais

Keywords: Artistic creation; Mental disturbance; Psychopathologic art; Semiotics

The complex relations between artistic creation and mental disturbance suggest an analysis starting with the functions of the language employed. Comparison reveals the differences between the dynamics of the disturbance and those of the artistic creation. The results demonstrate the absence of a causal link between the mental disturbance and the artistic creation, even if the trouble does not preclude this creation, and even may incite it. In this way it is possible to conceive better the limits of the so called psychopathologic art.


Mental and Behavioural Disintegration, Stereotypies, and Schizophrenia

Poster, 14th Congress of Collegium Internationale Neuro-Psychopharmacologicum (CINP), Firenze June 1984.

by I. Munkvad and A. Randrup

In many cases stereotyped behavior also clearly represents fragmented or disintegrated behaviour. In some examples of schizophrenic speech for example looseness of associations (disintegration, fragmentation) appears together with repetitions (stereotypy), the repetitions interrupting and breaking the associations. For the comparison of animal and human observations it is an obstacle that animal workers for experimental reasons have focused much on stereotypy, while clinicians have paid more attention to mental and behavioral disintegrations , as expressed i.a. by the term "schizophrenia".


Mental and Behavioural Stereotypies Elicited by Stimulant Drugs. Relation to the Dopamine Hypothesis of Schizophrenia, Mania and Depression

Discussion: Relation of stereotypies and psychoses to brain dopamine.

by A. Randrup, I. Munkvad and R. Fog

In: Recent Advances in Neuropsycho-Pharmacology Eds. B. Angrist, G. Burrows etc. Pergamon Press, New York, 1981.


Interdisciplinary Approach to Occupational Therapy of Psychotic Patients

Metodology of Occupational Therapy (Japan). Vol. 2, pp. 19-36, 2000. In English with summary in Japanese. This journal is edited by Society for Interdisciplinary Research Works of Occupational Therapy, S.I.R.W.O.T

by Axel Randrup

[SECTION I] Stereotyped Behavior Related to Fragmented Behavior, Psychosis and Occupational Therapy

[SECTION II] Drug Therapy, Biochemistry, Dopamine in the Brain
[SECTION III] Therapy and Prevention by Environmental and Social Means. Cultural Factors. Ethics

Excerpt from section III. I can go back to our bank voles from section one, those small animals in restricted cages, they developed stereotypied behavior. Their cages were not only small, they were also without possibilities for doing what these animals usually do when they are living in the woods. Then, my friend, Grethe Soerensen said, "Shouldn't we for once make an experiment, where we try to make it better for the animals?" I found that was a good idea. She said, "In many medical experiments you do some harm to animals." She didn't like that, she is an animal friend. "But let's do the opposite," she said, "let's try to make better conditions for animals." So she constructed larger cages, not much larger, twice or three times the ordinary size. She put in some twigs and some other things she collected in the woods, which she knew the animals were using, so they could perform their usual activities, climb small branches, twigs, go through holes etc. You might see that as a kind of occupational therapy. They got the opportunity for occupation. And they had somewhat more space, but not an extremely large space. And these changes were very effective in preventing stereotypy. The animals, the bank voles, placed in these cages, with opportunities for more activities, they had next to nothing in terms of stereotypy, while control animals in the ordinary cages developed stereotypy as usual. The voles seemed to lead more normal lives in the improved cages. This of course immediately indicates economic problems. How much will you pay to make it better for the animals? And that is one point, where I think there is a contact with ethics. Some people are more concerned about animal welfare than others. Some people are mostly concerned with economics; other people, perhaps, mostly with animal welfare. And there is still a debate going on, sometimes a fierce debate, because there is a lot of persistence on both sides. So that is for animals. Then we can think about humans. Of course, you immediately think about humans, and then again you hit ethics. How much will you pay for better environments for humans? Some employers don't care much about their workers. How much will we, generally pay for better conditions for workers ? Here again, we encounter different attitudes.


Commentary on "Stereotyped activities produced by amphetamine in several animal species and man". Psychopharmacologia (1967) 11:300-310

A landmark publication from the early days of the dopamine hypothesis

Psychopharmacology vol. 162 (4), pp. 349-350, 2002.

by Rasmus Fog and Axel Randrup

A paper in the series Landmark Publications in Psychopharmacology: The First 40 Years The paper commented on was authored by Axel Randrup and Ib Munkvad


An Alternative to Materialism: Converging Evidence from Nature Spirituality and Natural Science

Cybernetics & Human Knowing, Vol. 4 (4), 15-24, 1997

by Axel Randrup

Abstract By means of examples nature spirituality is described as certain particularly intense nature-experiences, felt to be essential and important. The author is familiar with such experiences, and I find that they influence also my rational, scientific conception of nature, emphasizing the reality of direct, conscious experience of both living, chemical and physical systems. This makes it difficult to accept materialist realism (or materialism), the view that nature exists as an external world separated from and independent of any observer . Materialist realism is generally espoused by natural science, but findings in several scientific disciplines in this century have led to severe difficulties with this view. Examples are given from the disciplines Evolutionary Epistemology, Second Order Cybernetics, Cognitive Neurophysiology, Statistics and Physics. As a more consistent alternative to materialism the author suggests a philosophy saying that reality consists entirely of conscious experiences (individual, collective or egoless). On the practical plane the recognition of spiritual values and the striving for consistency may lead to an improved, more sustainable lifestyle for the individual and for society. The departure from stark materialism may also help to develop cross-cultural exchange and understanding, a topical issue right now for both scientific and political reasons.


Relations between three-dimensional, volumetric experiences, and neural processes: Limitations of materialism

Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (4), 422, 2003

by Axel Randrup

Commentary to a target article by S. Lehar. Response by Lehar p. 438.



Paper in progress:

Indian Philosophies and Jewish Mysticism: Significant Similarities. Relations to Science

By Axel Randrup and Tista Bagchi

In the literature we have found important points of similarity in Jewish mysticism to Buddhism and also non-Buddhist Indian Philosophy. Among the similarities is the fundamental idea of emptiness, shuunyataa in Sanskrit, ayin in Hebrew. Emptiness is seen as empty of any details and concepts and without boundary. It has the potentiality to give rise to all phenomena. Also similar are attempts to harmonize the idea and experience of emptiness (nothingness) with the experience of the secular world with its many things and concepts. Relations of these Indian and Jewish belief systems to modern science are discussed.


The Perennial Philosophy

The International Journal of Transpersonal Studies, 22, 120-121, 2003

by Axel Randrup

By "The Perennial Philosophy" I shall here understand a philosophy of experienced spirituality saying that there is something similar or a common core to all experiences of spirituality and mysticism - across cultures and across the ages. In our time this idea was revived by Aldous Huxley (1945), and has received support from a number of authors. There has also been opposition, however, emphasizing the importance of the cultural differences (Katz, 1978,1983).The views of Katz and associates have again been critizised by several authors. Personally I tend to agree with the "perennialists", though I understand that for example a Jewish mystic, who sees the "being joined" to God (devekuth) as the essence of his spirituality, may find spiritual experiences not including God essentially different from his own. On the other hand, the Jewish tradition, as many other traditions, has a general view of man ( Adam and Eve, Messiah) which could be an opening for the perennial philosophy. Spiritual experiences are often said to be ineffable, transverbal, and this of course makes it difficult to discuss the idea of the perennial philosophy in words. So I must admit that my positive attitude to this philosophy depends on intuition more than on reason. Since religion and spirituality are important aspects of the life in our "Global Village", I think they are important, also for finding a sustainable way of life on this planet.
Key words: experienced spirituality; cultures; similarities; differences; sustainable way of life.


Meet the Researcher: Axel A. Randrup, Roskilde, Denmark

A biography dealing mostly with the research of Axel Randrup on collective conscious experience, idealist philosophy, and spirituality. The Journal of Transpersonal Psychology 35 (1) 65-69, 2003.


Collective and Egoless Consciousness

Significance for Philosophy of Science and the Mind- Body Problem

The International Journal of Transpersonal Studies, Vol. 18 (No.2) pp. 133-137, 1999.

by Axel Randrup

Excerpts Abstract. Collective consciousness and egoless consciousness can be regarded as realistic alternatives or complements to individual consciousness. This contention is supported by evidence from the literature (psychological, philosophical, anthropological, spiritual, Buddhist) and by personal observations and interpretations. It contradicts the idea that a philosophy which regards reality as consisting only of conscious experiences must inevitably lead to solipsism.

----------------------------- In a previous paper (Randrup 1997, see above, An Alternative to Materialism) the author proposed a skepticist-idealist philosophy, claiming that reality consists entirely of conscious experiences. This proposal is seen as a more consistent and unified alternative to materialism. Science is regarded as a catalog of intersubjective, conscious experiences ("observations") recognized as scientific and structured by means of concepts and theories (also regarded as conscious experiences). Materialism is seen as possible and useful within a certain (large) domain, but inconsistent beyond that domain. This view is supported by examples of contradictions and problems met in materialist science (in cognitive neurophysiology, the evolutionary study of cognition, statistics, physics, second order cybernetics) and by the felt reality of intense nature experiences (Randrup, 1997a). Philosophies of this type (idealism, phenomenalism, skepticism) have been known in the West in modern times since the work of the philosophers Berkeley and Hume in the 18th century and have often been met with the objection that they entail solipsism. I will argue that solipsism (individualism) is only one possible frame of reference for consciousness. Collective consciousness and egoless consciousness are seen as viable alternatives or complements

----------------------------- In various non-Western cultures, such as African, Aboriginal Australian, American Indian, East Asian, and "preconquest" cultures, views and attitudes are encountered which emphasize the collective and relational features of human beings and their minds at least as much as the individual features; indeed it seems that modern Western individualism is an exceptional or unique phenomenon among the world's cultures, past and present.

------------------------------ Although individuality is so prominent in Western cultures and daily life, there are features of collectivity. "Objective" science seems to be an important example of this. In order to be recognized as scientific, an observation has to be confirmed by several scientists - become intersubjective. An intersubjective observation is often conceived as the same observation or experience distributed over different individual minds or consciousnesses and then unified by means of an "objective" materialist concept. It can, however, also be conceived (and experienced) to be unified from the beginning as one observation constituting a part of a collective consciousness.

---------------------------- The collective part of their consciousness will be associated with the brains of all the persons involved and not only with one brain (brains are here seen as heuristic structures in the scientific catalog mentioned in the introduction).


Collective Consciousness Across Time

Anthropology of Consciousness, vol.13 (1): 27-41, 2002

by Axel Randrup

Abstract The notion of collective conscious experience is here seen as an alternative or complement to the more familiar notion of individual conscious experience. Much evidence supports the concept of collective experience in the present. But what about time? Can a conscious experience which, when regarded as individual, is referred to the past be considered a collective experience extended in both past and present ? My answer is yes, and this answer is supported by evidence about conceptions of time and conscious experience in various cultures, including Western culture and science, and by evidence about the psychological Now. Egoless conscious experience is an alternative to both individual and collective experience; it is often connected with experience of timelessness, and is then unrestricted by time.
Key words: Conscious experience, collective and egoless, time , cultures See also the abstract above on Collective and Egoless Consciousnes



Animal Mind as Approached by the Transpersonal Notion of Collective Conscious Experience

The International Journal of Transpersonal Studies 23, 32-45, 2004

by Axel Randrup

Abstract The discussion of animal mind in this paper is based on an idealist philosophy contending that only conscious experience is real, and on the notion of transpersonal, collective conscious experience. The latter has earlier been explained by me as experience referred to a group of humans as the subject, the We. Here it is contended that also a group of humans and animals can be seen as the subject of collective conscious experiences. I argue that the notion of collective conscious experience provides a possibility for studying the problems of animal mind and the related human problem of "other minds" in a more detailed and rational way. Key words: Collective consciouness, animals, evolution, idealist philosophy, ethics.


More Than One Truth: Consequenses for Our World View

In Research in Progress: Advances in Interdisciplinary Studies, Vol.4 (G. Lasker, ed.)Windsor University, Windsor, Canada. 1997. ISBN 092183635X

by Axel Randrup

When you go on bicycle you have the immediate impression that the force you apply to the pedals is proportional to the speed you obtain, and you can use this as a working theory. This theory may appear to be contradicted by Newtonian theory saying that force is proportional to *acceleration*. But if you consider the friction of the wheels of the bicycle with the road, you can reconcile the two theories. Newtonian theory covers the larger domain, and therefore many people think that it is the real truth. But in our century, Newtonian theory too has been shown to cover only a limited domain of empirical observation. General Relativity covers a larger domain. My point is that all three theories convey some truth, describing real structures in our multitude of empirical observations. The history of science indicates that no theory gives us the truth standing forever. The theories do not differ only with respect to structure (relations), also some of their entities are different. Thus gravitational force "exists" in Newtonian theory, but in General Relattivity it is replaced by another "existant", space-time curvature. I therefore think that these entities do not have absolute existence , but are parts of a theory, helping to show structures in our world of empirical observations. These views may appear unpractical within a discipline, e.g. physics, but they are helpful for interdisciplinary understanding.

Activities and interests of the members

Pierre Marchais

MD, psychiatrist, Cofounder and vice president of CIRIP, former president of Sociéte Médico- Psychologique Paris. 33 Rue Lacépède, F-75005 Paris, France. Fax: +33147079210

Pierre Marchais is a pioneer of systems psychiatry in France (la méthode systémale)

Representative publications:

Le nouvel esprit psychiatrique

Métamorphose et développement de la psychiatrie clinique

Pierre Marchais avec la participation d'Axel Randrup

Frisons-Roche, Paris 1996, 272 pp. This book descibes the new systems (or systemal) thinking in psychiatry developed by P. Marchais during more than 30 years of work in clinical psychiatry. Here follows in French a definition of the word systemal which is central in this clinical work:


adj. (1977,Pierre Marchais; dérivé de système)

Excerpt. Qui évoque le système dans une perspective d'ensemble, fonctionnelle et dynamique, le système n'étant pas limité à lui-même, mais se trouvant situé au sein du milieu. La méthode systémale est une méthode d'analyse et de synthèse recourant à cette notion, qui fut initialement destinée à l'étude des processus psychopathologiques. Elle se fonde sur la clinique et des démarches logico-mathématiques modernes (d'ensembles et de logique du flou) conjugant leur universalité et leur rigeur à l'indétermination propre au vécu individuel.
La psychiatrie systémale est une synthèse en permenent développement des différentes données cliniques obtenues par cette méthode. La connaissance systémale est liée à la nature interdisciplinaire de la méthode.


Le processus de connaissance

Cognitive Processes

Pierre Marchais with participation of Jean-Blaise Grize

Frison-Roche, Paris, 2000, 396 pp. An extension of the work of P. Marchais on the dynamics and systems structure of the psyche to include cognition. J-B Grize adds his expertise in logics. Progresses from psychiatry to interdisciplinarity. Sections on intuition, logic, language, hermeneutics, altered states, experienced transcendences (naturel, supranaturel, surnaturel) etc. From the editor's remarks, in French: La connaissance répond-elle à une pulsion de l'homme pour comprendre les phénomènes et les situations qui l'entourent ? Pour l'auteur, neuropsychiatre, cela ne fait aucune doute et il en étude la genèse au travers des plus importantes dysrégulations psychiques, dont on sait qu'elles peuvent impliquer des troubles du comportement, des troubles des automatismes ou encore des troubles du fonctionnement d'ensembles des diverses organisations. Une mise en garde de l'auteur intéresse les théories normatives (langagières, discursives), imagières (Freud) ou celles qui ont cherché à formaliser la connaissance à l'aide de méthodes statististiques diagnostiques, de critères et d'échelles. Queel est en effet le caractère objectif d'un phénomène observé et ne faut-il pas dénoncer le culte du nombre comme une fin en soi ? Cet ouvrage est destiné tout particulièrement aux psychiatres, aux psychologuess, et touts personne intéressé par le sujet.



Tista Bagchi

Professor, Department of Linguistics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007, INDIA

Interests and research: Linguistic theory, analytic philosophy of mind, Indian philosophy and linguistics, social philosophy, ethics.

Representative publications:

Language and Cognition: New Dimension

eds. Tista Bagchi and R. K. Agnihotri. New Delhi/London/Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage. Book expected to appear in 2005.


Causation and tense in subordinate clauses: Conjunctive participles and conditionals in Bangla and Hindi

In: Polymorphous Linguistics eds. Salikoko S. Mufwene, Elaine J. Francis, and Rebecca S. Wheeler. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. Forthcoming in 2005


The Sentence in Computation and Cognitive Science

University of Delhi. The role of the sentence is examined and assessed in a significant area of interface research between computer science and technology , on the one hand, and the modeling of aspects of human cognitive processes with special reference to linguistic processing, on the other. The role of the sentence in relation to consciousness is adddressed. The final section raises the question of which kind of ontological status the sentence has, and provides a possible way to proceed to answer this question.


Language and Logic in the Indian Scholastic Tradition: Some Strands

Paper read and circulated at the Conference on the History of Science in Asia, University of Chittagong, 2002. An extremely high degree of analyticity is found in the treatment of grammar and textual-grammatical analysis in the Indian linguistic tradition from pre-Paninian times through the early modern period. The authors highlight the strong linguistically-based current of *rationality* that one finds running through the Indian linguistico-philosophical tradition along with the *mystical* approaches to the Indian scholastic tradition. They also mention the Indian linguistic philosopher Bhart Whari, who conducted a highly linguistically-structured approach to the bigger questions of reality, the cognition of reality, and the cognition of language as a conduit to the cognition of reality. Buddhist and some pre-Buddhist Indian logic comprises the four corners A; non-A ; A and non-A; neither A nor non-A , of which the latter two appear paradoxical to ordinary western logic.


The concepts of shuunya (zero, void) and shuunyataa (nothingness, infinity) in non-Buddhist Indian Thought

In Bagchi, Tista. The Sentence in Language and Cognition. Book manuscript, National Humanities Center, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, and University of Delhi. In preparation. The concept of the zero in arithmetic is widely believed to be a contribution of ancient Indian mathematicians to mathematics as it is understood an applied in the sciences, in technology, and in the world of business today. In Sanskrit, the ancient Indian language used in logical and scientific reasoning, the concept of zero is expressed by the term shuunya. One might note, however, that shuunya is also a central concept in much of Indian philosophy. The concept of shuunya contains both rational understanding of our world and the irratinal or intuitive perception of the universe. In India the term is used in both mathematics, philosophy, and mysticism. Shuunya connotes not only the numerical notion of zero but also the cosmological notion of universe: shuunya is thus both null and infinite: a void, but also the infinite space in which existence can come into being and interpersomal commnion can take place. To put it in another way, with reference to the material world, shuunya is the space in which nothingness can flower into living beings, and interconnections among living beings. Shuunyataa as a concept occupies a central position in the Indian mystical tradition, even aside from its prominent role in Buddhist philosophy. While it is often crudely translated as emptiness, the term is complex in meaning, the term can also be interpreted as the quality possessed by infinite space.


Research on the Linguistic Abilities of Mentally Impaired Children: Ethical Issues

There is a pressing need for a legally and morally coherent policy to address the concerns of linguistic researchers towards a far greater understanding of the problems of children with specific intellectual and learning impairments in a complex multilingual, multicultural, and socioeconomic setup such as the one we have in India.


Morally Right Action under Silence and Disempowerment

Paper presented at the XXIst World Congress of Philosophy, Istanbul, Turkey, 2003. A recognition of the fundamental universality of human morality with culture-specific and community-specific modes of putting that morality into practice.


Vivian Lin Waddell

Doctor of Philosophy
2/60 Temple St., Ballina, NSW 2478, Australia

Representative publications:

Social Ecology as Ontology: A Re-Search for Being

Master of Science Thesis, University of Western Sidney, Hawkesbury, Bourke Street Richmond NSW 2753 Australia


Social ecology is, above all, a search for interactive being in the world (p. 79).

If we all recognised our interbeing with one another and nature, we would do everything to protect and care for one another (p. 270).

....a viable social ecology is dependent on the degree to which each human being is able to uncover her or himself in relationship with all other beings and the earth (p. 1).

....a socially ecological, responsible balance between individual being and collective being (p. 234).

The thesis also reports on personal spiritual experiences, and in this context discusses views of Buddhism, Tao, and some individual philosophers.


A Phenomenological Study of the Inner Voice Experience

Doctoral thesis, University of New England, Armidale NSW 2351 Australia

A phenomenological inquiry of the lived experience of inner voices heard by people who are not mystics and who are not considered mentally unstable, that is, by ordinary people living "normal" lives.

Major significant themes are :

the felt "presence" of the voice;

attributions the interviewees make to describe "what" the voice is to them;

the different types of relationships between the voice and those who hear it;

and the meaning of the experience of hearing a voice speak has for the experient.


Paper in progress:

The Inner Voice Experience:

A Life Enhancing and Sane Occurrence in Ordinary People

A Phenomenological Description of the Inner Voice Experience.
The felt experience of the Inner Voice Experience.

An edition of the doctoral thesis meant for publication in a scientific journal.

Torben Larsen

Højmevænget 24, DK-5250 Odense SV, Denmark
Cand. oecon., health-economical consultant, Fyns County, Denmark.

Torben Larsen has for many years studied meditation, yoga, biofeedback and neuropsychologic research associated with these phenomena. Research with chiefpsychologist J. Beckmann on the health-psychological aspects of training of yoga in the general evening school. Lundbeckprize 1991 for a paper on the comprehensive reform of the hospital structure in Fyn county, 1990. Originator of VisInfo, a coordinating system for hospital referrals, based on electronic communication with the general practitioning physicians.

Publication on VisInfo:

Health Services, Coordination and the Internet

Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine 54 (1997) 123-130

by Torben Larsen

Raymond Swing

Drosselvej 81, DK-2000 Frb. Denmark

I started a biological study but did not finish. Thereafter I functioned as a schoolteacher for thirty years and also received some further education in music at the conservatory in Aalborg, Denmark and at the Humbolt University in Berlin, DDR (theory and history). I had always been interested in philosophy and dialectics (Marx), physics, biology, economics. history, culture, and philosophy of science. Therefore, after retiring from teaching I took these issues up again in a more serious way. I have published some essays in DIALEKTIK and in EUROPÄISCHE ENZYKLOPÄDIE ZU PHILOSOPHIE UND WISSENSCHAFTEN (about termodynamics) and work on the articles: ZWEI BEMERKUNGEN ZUM BEGRIFF DES GESELLSCHAFTLICHEN MENSCH-NATURVERHÄLTNISSES ON THE WAY TO A GENERAL AND GENERATIVE DIALECTICS. MODELS OF DIALECTICAL GENESIS Interests: Anthropogenesis, anticipation, dialectics, dialectical contradictions, dominium, consciousness, emergence, generative dialectics, intentionality, language, nature, negations, objectivity, property, society, subjectivity.

Burt Angrist

Amphetamine Psychosis: Clinical Variations of the Syndrome

In: Amphetamine and its Analogs, Academic Press, 1994, pp. 387-414.

Erik Schiørring

Psychologist, Denmark. Comprehensive interdisciplinary studies of the effects of amphetamine and other stimulant drugs in animals and man.

Representative publications:

Psychopathology Induced by "Speed Drugs"

Pharmacol. Biochem. & Behavior 14, Suppl. 1, pp. 109-122, 1981.


Drugs, Agression &Violence

Presented in part at "Conference on Agression", Abrahámhegy, Hungary, May 10-12, 1995. Printed in Hungarian: Drogok, Agresszió és Tettlegesség in: Az Agresszió Problémái Korunkban, I.Kappeter(Ed.), SZMA, Budapest, 1996

"General increase in human misery" - "Drug use, drug induced aggression and violence, drug trafficking" will be the headlines in this paper, which intends to emphasize the serious degree of aggression and violence that is so closely connected with and produced by the Speed-Drugs. Excerpt. There are no happy drug-addicts, and no drug-addicts come from happy social circumstances. And do not deny this with reference to a few important exceptions. The increased level of general misery among both "West" and "East" populations, is the main cause of drug addiction. Lack of hope and the world-wide problems of civil wars (including private divorces!) contribute to this and make therapy and other intervention more difficult. In general such factors as early childhood injuries, abuse or neglect; socialisation experiences; lack of economic opportunity; community disorganization; and physical reactions to specific types of drugs are important adjuncts to the three dimmensions described above (the psychopharmacologic, the economic and the systemic dimensions). One point remains very clear: The problem of drugs and violence are complex public health and social interventions. Some may despair, believing the links between substance abuse and violence to be inseparable and complex to a degree, where a solution cannot be found. But efforts to understand these relationships can contribute to reduce their recent intensification.

Axel Randrup
Byg. 24, Svog. DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark.

Dr. phil., CIRIP president. Board member of Danish Society for Human Ethology; Member of American Philosophical Association and the International Berkeley Society. Member of the editorial boards for The International Journal of Transpersonal Studies and Scientific Inquiry (see Announcement below); Consulting editor Cybernetics & Human Knowing.

Interests and research: Idealist philosophy, Collective consciousness, Spirituality, Mind-matter relations, Amphetamine psychosis, Dopamine hypothesis of psychoses, Interdisciplinary research.

Publications on the Internet:

Idealist Philosophy: What is Real ? Conscious Experience Seen as Basic to All Ontology. An Overview

CIRIP, Idealist Philosophy

Collective Consciousness and Idealist Philosophy

Conscious Experience, Existence and Behaviour:Significance of Consciousness in Human Life

Cognition and Biological Evolution: An Idealist Approach
Resolves a Fundamental Paradox

Science and Spirituality


Representative printed publications:

Stereotyped Behavior, Amphetamine, and Psychosis

Deals with behavioural pharmacology and neurochemistry of psychosis. Emphasizes that psychotic patients are fellow human beings.

Current Contents, This week's citation classic, Vol. 33, #3, Jan. 15, 1990, sections Clinical Medicine, Arts and Humanities, Social & Behavioral Sciences, and Life Sciences.


Role of Catecholamines in the Amphetamine Excitatory Response

An early paper in the research on the role of brain dopamine in psychoses.

A. Randrup and I. Munkvad

Nature 211, 540, !966

Grethe Sørensen

Denmark Cand.scient. in zoology, specialty: ethology (behavioural biology). Cofounder and board member of CIRIP. Member of Danish Society for Human Ethology.

Research on normal and abnormal behaviour of bank voles with interdisciplinary links to psychiatry and systems science.

Representative publications:

Stereotyped Behaviour, Hyperaggressiveness and "Tyrannic" Hierarchy induced in Bank Voles by a Restricted Cage Milieu

Prog. Neuro-Psychopharmacol. & Biol. Psychiat. 11, 9-21, 1927.


Abnormal Behaviour of Bank Voles Reduced by an Enriched Cage Milieu. Perspectives for the Problem of Humane Attitudes in Biological Psychiatry.

Ethol. Sociobiol. 10 , 414-415 ,1989.

Excerpt. Our experiments show,with genuinely biological methods, the importance of the milieu factor in the study of abnormal behaviour of bank voles, a result which usually does not emerge from biochemical and pharmacological experiments. And while we are working on changes of the voles' milieu, we are readily led to hypotheses about changes of human milieux, which may be helpful in the prevention and treatment of psychiatric diseases. From this there is only a short step to understanding and study of the importance of humane attitudes to psychiatric patients.


Possible Protective Value of Severe Psychopathology Against Lethal Effects of an Unfavourable Milieu

Stress Medicine 2,103-105, 1986.

The incidence of stereotyped and hyperaggressive behaviour was significantly greater in laboratory bred animals, and excessive water-drinking and death significantly greater in the wild species.

Søren Brier

Ved Vandløbet 21, DK-2610 Rødovre, Denmark
Master of Science in biology (ethology), Ph.D. in philosophy of science.

Professor, Copenhagen Business School, Dept. of Management, Politics and Philosophy.

Editor of Cybernetics & Human Knowing, a journal of second-order cybernetics autopoiesis and cyber-semiotics. Home page: On this home page there are several papers (full text or abstracts) by members of CIRIP: Søren Brier, Pierre Marchais. and Axel Randrup.

Interests and research: A philosophy of science approach to information science and technology; cognitive science; second order cybernetics; cyber-semiotics; attempts to establish an interdisciplinary viewpoint focusing on development of a non-reductionist view of psycho-biological systems.


NEW Journal

Scientific Inquiry

"Scientific Inquiry" is a forum of the highest professional quality for both scientists and nonscientists alike to exchange ideas and publish new discoveries on a vast array of topics and issues. This forum aims to bring forth anything from either innovative understandings to known theories or unexplainable discoveries not adequately studied in mainstream science.  It provides everyone opportunities to present, criticize, and discuss their findings, theories, and ideas with others.  Submission of manuscripts to Y. Lin , 260 Elm Street, Slippery Rock, PA 16057, USA. A special feature will be that if an unconventional paper of good quality has been rejected (repeatedly) by known journals in traditional fields of science with nasty comments, we will publish these comments together with the paper, if it is judged good quality by our reviewers using a different set of standards.

Collections, search engines, and search pages for philosophy:

Cognitive Sciences Eprint Archive

PhilSci Archive

Humbul Humanities HubHumbul Humanities Hub
A service of the UK's Resource Discovery Network. Click on the logo to get the search engine.


Scientific and Medical Network Explorations in Science and Human Experience, beyond a materialist worldview, an interdisciplinary forum.

Collection for spirituality and religion:


Sincerely, Axel Randrup, CIRIP president, home page editor.