Recognition failure of recallable words in semantic memory

Muter, Prof. Paul (1978) Recognition failure of recallable words in semantic memory. [Journal (Paginated)]

Full text available as:



In an experiment in which there was no study phase, 54 subjects were tested for recognition of famous surnames and then were tested for cued recall of the same surnames. Subjects failed to recognize 53.4% of names that they subsequently recalled. Recall was significantly higher than recognition. The relationship between overall recognition rate and recognition rate of recallable words closely resembled that reported by Tulving and Wiseman (1975) for episodic memory experiments. The present data therefore extend the generality of this relationship, and of the principle that the probability of retrieval from memory depends critically on the cues provided. It is argued that the similarity between results for episodic memory experiments and the present semantic memory experiment can be more parsimoniously accommodated by tagging theory than by episodic theory.

Item Type:Journal (Paginated)
Keywords:recognition, recall, semantic memory
Subjects:Psychology > Cognitive Psychology
ID Code:4394
Deposited By:Muter, Prof. Paul
Deposited On:19 Jun 2005
Last Modified:11 Mar 2011 08:56

References in Article

Select the SEEK icon to attempt to find the referenced article. If it does not appear to be in cogprints you will be forwarded to the paracite service. Poorly formated references will probably not work.

Anderson, J. R., & Bower, G. H. A propositional theory of recognition memory. Memory & Cognition, 1974, 2, 406-412.

Bahrick, H. P. A two-phase model for prompted recall. Psychological Review, 1970, 77. 215-222.

Kintsch, W. Models for free recall and recognition. In D. A. Norman (Ed.). Models of human memory. New York: Academic Press, 1970.

Martin, E. Generation-recognition theory and the encoding specificity principle. Psychological Review, 1975, 82, 150-153.

Postman, L. Tests of the generality of the principle of encoding specificity. Memory & Cognition, 1975, 3. 663-672.

Random House dictionary (unabridged ed.). New York: Random House, 1969.

Reder, L. M.. Anderson, J. R., & Bjork, R. A. A semantic interpretation of encoding specificity. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1974, 102, 648-656.

Tulving, E. Episodic and semantic memory. In E. Tulving & W. Donaldson (Eds.), Organization of memory. New York: Academic Press, 1972.

Tulving, E. Cue-dependent forgetting. American Scientist, 1974, 62, 74-82.

Tulving, E. Ecphoric processes in recall and recognition. In J. Brown (Ed.), Recognition and recall. London: Wiley, 1976. Pp. 37-73.

Tulving, E., & Thomson, D. M. Encoding specificity and retrieval processes in episodic memory. Psychological Review, 1973, 80, 352-373.

Tulving, E., & Wiseman, S. Relation between recognition and recognition failure of recallable words. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 1975, 6, 79-82.

Watkins, M. J., & Tulving, E. Episodic memory: When recognition fails. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 1975, 104, 5-29.

Wiseman, S., & Tulving, E. Encoding specificity: Relation between recall superiority and recognition failure. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 1976, 2, 349-361.


Repository Staff Only: item control page