Understanding Science Through Knowledge Organizers: An Introduction

Kharatmal, Meena and G., Nagarjuna (2005) Understanding Science Through Knowledge Organizers: An Introduction. [Conference Paper]

Full text available as:



We propose, in this paper, a teaching program based on a grammar of scientific language borrowed mostly from the area of knowledge representation in computer science and logic. The paper introduces an operationizable framework for understanding knowledge using knowledge representation (KR) methodology. We start with organizing concepts based on their cognitive function, followed by assigning valid and authentic semantic relations to the concepts. We propose that in science education, students can understand better if they organize their knowledge using the KR principles. The process, we claim, can help them to align their conceptual framework with that of experts which we assume is the goal of science education.

Item Type:Conference Paper
Keywords:KR, knowledge representation, ontology, GNOWSYS, knowledge organization, semantics, semantic relations, conceptual change, learning, evaluation, grammar of science, biology education, novice, expert, concept maps, Novak, Ausubel, Fisher, Sowa
Subjects:Computer Science > Artificial Intelligence
ID Code:4348
Deposited By:G., Nagarjuna
Deposited On:05 May 2005
Last Modified:11 Mar 2011 08:56

References in Article

Select the SEEK icon to attempt to find the referenced article. If it does not appear to be in cogprints you will be forwarded to the paracite service. Poorly formated references will probably not work.

[1] David Ausubel, Joseph Novak, and Henry Hanesian. Cognitive Physchology: A Cognitive View. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, 1978.

[2] William Brewer and Ala Samarapungavan. Children’s theories vs. scienctific theories: Differences in reasoning or differences in knowledge? In Hoffman and Palermo, editors, Cognition and the Symbolic Processes: Applied and Ecological Perspectives, pages 209-232. Erlbaum, NJ., 1991.

[3] Susan Carey. Conceptual change and science education. American Psychologist, 41(10):1123-1130, 1986.

[4] Kathleen Fisher and Michael Kibby, editors. Knowledge Acquisition, Organization, and Use in Biology. Springer-Verlag, Germany, 1996.

[5] Kathleen Fisher, James Wandersee, and David Moody. Mapping Biology Knowledge. Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, 2000.

[6] Nagarjuna. G. From folklore to science. In Teaching and Communicating Science: What the History, Philosophy and Sociology of Science can Contribute?, Leeds, England, 2005. IHPST. To Appear in the Proceedings.

[7] Nagarjuna G. Gnowsys: A system for semantic computing. Website, 2005. files/cpv2/.

[8] Nagarjuna G. Gnowsys: Gnowledge networking and organizing system. Website, 2005.

[9] Nagarjuna. G. Layers in the fabric of mind: A cognitive ontogeny. In Jayashree Ramadas and Sugra Chunawala, editors, Episteme 1: An International Conference to review Research on Science, Technology and Mathematics Education. HBCSE, HBCSE, India, 2005. To Appear in the Proceedings.

[10] Nagarjuna. G and Meena Kharatmal. Towards a principled approach of concept mapping. Working Draft.

[11] Meena Kharatmal and Nagarjuna G. Knowledge organization of biology education. Website, 2004. 9673/Meena/Biology/.

[12] Doug Lenat. The cyc knowledge server. Website, 2005. http: //

[13] Joel Mintzes, James Wandersee, and Joseph Novak, editors. Teaching Science for Understanding — A Human Consctructivist View. Academic Press, USA, 1998.

[14] Joel Mintzes, James Wandersee, and Joseph Novak, editors. Assessing Science Understanding - A Human Constructivist View. Academic Press, USA, 2000.

[15] Joseph Novak and D. Bob Gowin. Learning How to Learn. Cambridge University Press, UK, 1984.

[16] National Library of Medicine. Unified medical language system (umls). Website, 2005.

[17] Carol A. Bean Rebecca Green and Sung Hyon Myaeng. In Carol A. Bean Rebecca Green and Sung Hyon Myaeng, editors, The Semantics of Relationships—An Interdisciplinary Perspective, chapter Introduction, pages vii-xvi. Kluwer Academic Publishers, London, 2002.

[18] John Sowa. Conceptual Structures: Information Processing in Mind and Machine. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, USA, 1984.

[19] John Sowa. Knowledge Representation: Logical, Philosophical and Computational Foundations. Brooks/Cole, USA, 2003.

[20] Sandhya Thulasidas and Nagarjuna. G. A methodology for the analysis of biological knowledge base. In S. C. Agarkar and V. D. Lale, editors, CASTME-UNESCO-HBCSE International Conference on Science, Technology and Mathematics Education for Human Development, volume 1, pages 149-155. HBCSE, Mumbai, India, 2001.

[21] Morton Winston, Roger Chaffin, and Douglas Herrman. A taxonomy of part-whole relations. Cognitive Science, 11:417-444, 1987.


Repository Staff Only: item control page