Cogprints

Optical Mapping Of Cardiac Arrhythmias

Arora, Rishi and Das, Mithilesh K and Zipes, Douglas P and Wu, Jianyi (2003) Optical Mapping Of Cardiac Arrhythmias. [Journal (Paginated)]

Full text available as:

[img]HTML
138Kb

Abstract

The concept of mapping rhythmic activation of the heart dates back to the beginning of last century, with initial descriptions of reentry in turtle hearts1, to the first systematic mapping of sinus rhythm and then atrial flutter by Lewis et al2. Barker et al3 were the first to map the human heart. Initial mapping was primarily performed using single probes to record activation in different regions of the heart. The 1960’s and 70’s saw the development of computerized mapping of the human heart, e.g. in the cure of Wolf-Parkinson-White syndrome as well as in the study of Langendorff preparations4. In fact, most of the recent advances in cardiac mapping have focused on improvements in multisite recordings within the heart, with the ability to simultaneous record electrical activation from several hundreds of sites having contributed significantly to our understanding of atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. Despite these recent advances, multisite contact mapping suffers from several limitations, including the technical problems associated with amplification, gains, sampling rates, signal-to-noise ratio, and the inability to see signals during high-voltage shocks. In addition, an intrinsic limitation of current mapping techniques is their inability to provide information about repolarization characteristics of electrically active cells, thereby limiting our ability to study entire action potentials. In fact, intracellular microelectrode recordings are still considered the gold standard for the study of action potential characteristics in whole tissue. Microelectrode techniques are limited however, by an inability to record action potentials from several sites simultaneously, thereby precluding their use in high-density activation mapping. In part due to the above-mentioned limitations, the last few years have seen the development and use of voltage-sensitive dyes as a means to map not only activation, but repolarization as well. Voltage-sensitive dyes, when excited, provide an optical signal that mimics an action potential and thus allows the visualization of both activation and recovery processes in any region under view. This allows one to precisely evaluate the propagation of a wave of excitation and to measure its wavelength visually. Optical mapping techniques use imaging devices such as a photodiode array or a charge-coupled device video camera with the heart being illuminated and either continuously or spatially scanned. The basis for these techniques is the use of voltage-sensitive dyes that bind to or interact with cell membranes.

Item Type:Journal (Paginated)
Keywords:optical mapping; cardiac arrhythmias
Subjects:JOURNALS > Indian Pacing and Electrophysiology Journal
ID Code:4242
Deposited By:Indian Pacing and Electrophysiology, Journal
Deposited On:20 Apr 2005
Last Modified:11 Mar 2011 08:55

References in Article

Select the SEEK icon to attempt to find the referenced article. If it does not appear to be in cogprints you will be forwarded to the paracite service. Poorly formated references will probably not work.

1. Mines G. On dynamic equilibrium in the heart. J Physiol (Lond). 1913;46:349-382.

2. Lewis T FS, Stroud WD II. The nature of auricular flutter. Heart. 1920;7:131-346.

3. Barker PS MA, Alexander J. The excitatory process observed in the exposed human heart. American Heart Journal. 1930;5:720-742.

4. Durrer D VDR, Frend GE, et al. Total excitation of the isolated human heart. Circulation. 1970;41:899-912.

5. Rosenbaum D. In: Rosenbaum DS JJ, ed. Optical Mapping of Cardica Excitation and Arrhythmias. Armonk, NY: Futura; 2001:2-7.

6. Laurita K LI. Optics and Detectors Used in Optical Mapping. In: Rosenbaum DS JJ, ed. Optical Mapping of Cardiac Excitation and Arrhythmias. Armonk, NY: Futura; 2001:61-78.

7. Girouard SD LK, Rosenbaum DS. Unique properties of cardiac action potentials recorded with voltage-sensitive dyes. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 1996;7:1024-1038.

8. Loew LM, Cohen LB, Dix J, Fluhler EN, Montana V, Salama G, Wu JY. A naphthyl analog of the aminostyryl pyridinium class of potentiometric membrane dyes shows consistent sensitivity in a variety of tissue, cell, and model membrane preparations. J Membr Biol. 1992;130:1-10.

9. Windisch H. Optical Mapping of Impulse Propagation within Cardiomyocytes. In: Rosenbaum DS JJ, ed. Optical Mapping of Cardiac Excitation and Arrhythmias. Armonk, NY: Futura; 2001:97-112.

10. Rohr S KJ. Optical Mapping of Impulse Propagation between Cardiomyocytes. In: Rosenbaum DS JJ, ed. Optical Mapping of Cardiac Excitation and Arrhythmias. Armonk, NY: Futura; 2001:113-135.

11. Kleber A RS, Fast V. Role of Cell-to-Cell Coupling, Structural Discontinuities, and Tissue Anisotropy in Propagation of the Electrical Impulse. In: Rosenbaum DS JJ, ed. Optical Mapping of Cardiac Excitation and Arrhythmias. Armonk, NY: Futura; 2001:137-155.

12. Wu J, Olgin J, Miller JM, Zipes DP. Mechanisms underlying the reentrant circuit of atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia in isolated canine atrioventricular nodal preparation using optical mapping. Circ Res. 2001;88:1189-95.

13. Davidenko JM, Pertsov AV, Salomonsz R, Baxter W, Jalife J. Stationary and drifting spiral waves of excitation in isolated cardiac muscle. Nature. 1992;355:349-51.

14. Pertsov AM, Davidenko JM, Salomonsz R, Baxter WT, Jalife J. Spiral waves of excitation underlie reentrant activity in isolated cardiac muscle. Circ Res. 1993;72:631-50.

15. Cabo C, Pertsov AM, Davidenko JM, Baxter WT, Gray RA, Jalife J. Vortex shedding as a precursor of turbulent electrical activity in cardiac muscle. Biophys J. 1996;70:1105-11.

16. Gray RA, Jalife J, Panfilov A, Baxter WT, Cabo C, Davidenko JM, Pertsov AM. Nonstationary vortexlike reentrant activity as a mechanism of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia in the isolated rabbit heart. Circulation. 1995;91:2454-69.

17. Gray RA, Jalife J, Panfilov AV, Baxter WT, Cabo C, Davidenko JM, Pertsov AM. Mechanisms of cardiac fibrillation. Science. 1995;270:1222-3; author reply 1224-5.

18. Jalife J, Gray RA, Morley GE, Davidenko JM. Self-organization and the dynamical nature of ventricular fibrillation. Chaos. 1998;8:79-93.

19. Gray R, Jalife, J. Video imaginng of cardiac defibrillation. Armnok, NY: Futura Publishinng Co.; 2001.

20. Baxter WT DJ. Videomapping of spiral waves in the heart. Armnok, NY: Futura publishing Co.; 2001.

21. Laurita KR, Girouard SD, Rosenbaum DS. Modulation of ventricular repolarization by a premature stimulus. Role of epicardial dispersion of repolarization kinetics demonstrated by optical mapping of the intact guinea pig heart. Circ Res. 1996;79:493-503.

22. Wu J, Zipes DP. Mechanisms underlying atrioventricular nodal conduction and the reentrant circuit of atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia using optical mapping. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2002;13:831-4.

23. Haissaguerre M, Jais P, Shah DC, Takahashi A, Hocini M, Quiniou G, Garrigue S, Le Mouroux A, Le Metayer P, Clementy J. Spontaneous initiation of atrial fibrillation by ectopic beats originating in the pulmonary veins. N Engl J Med. 1998;339:659-66.

24. Lin WS, Prakash VS, Tai CT, Hsieh MH, Tsai CF, Yu WC, Lin YK, Ding YA, Chang MS, Chen SA. Pulmonary vein morphology in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation initiated by ectopic beats originating from the pulmonary veins: implications for catheter ablation. Circulation. 2000;101:1274-81.

25. Arora R, Verheule S, Scott L, Navarrete A, Katari V, Wilson E, Vaz D, Olgin JE. Arrhythmogenic substrate of the pulmonary veins assessed by high-resolution optical mapping. Circulation. 2003;107:1816-21.

26. Efimov IR, Huang DT, Rendt JM, Salama G. Optical mapping of repolarization and refractoriness from intact hearts. Circulation. 1994;90:1469-80.

27. Garrigue S, Reuter S, Efimov IR, Mazgalev TN, Jais P, Haissaguerre M, Clementy J. Optical mapping technique applied to biventricular pacing: potential mechanisms of ventricular arrhythmias occurrence. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2003;26:197-205.

28. Entcheva E, Eason J, Efimov IR, Cheng Y, Malkin R, Claydon F. Virtual electrode effects in transvenous defibrillation-modulation by structure and interface: evidence from bidomain simulations and optical mapping. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 1998;9:949-61.

29. Girouard SD, Pastore JM, Laurita KR, Gregory KW, Rosenbaum DS. Optical mapping in a new guinea pig model of ventricular tachycardia reveals mechanisms for multiple wavelengths in a single reentrant circuit. Circulation. 1996;93:603-13.

30. Laurita KR PJ, Rosenbaum, DS. How restittution, repolarizationn and alternans form arrhytmogenic substrate: Insight from high resolution optical mapping. In: Zipes DP JJ, ed. Cardiac electrophysiology: from cell to bedside. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders C; 2000:239-248

Metadata

Repository Staff Only: item control page