Cognitive science and epistemic openness

Anderson, Dr. Michael L. (2005) Cognitive science and epistemic openness. [Journal (Paginated)] (In Press)

Full text available as:



Recent findings in cognitive science suggest that the epistemic subject is more complex and epistemically porous than is generally pictured. Human knowers are open to the world via multiple channels, each operating for particular purposes and according to its own logic. These findings need to be understood and addressed by the philosophical community. The current essay argues that one consequence of the new findings is to invalidate certain arguments for epistemic anti-realism.

Item Type:Journal (Paginated)
Keywords:knowledge, vision, action, proprioception, realism
Subjects:Biology > Animal Cognition
Philosophy > Philosophy of Mind
ID Code:3946
Deposited By:Anderson, Dr. Michael
Deposited On:20 Nov 2004
Last Modified:11 Mar 2011 08:55

References in Article

Select the SEEK icon to attempt to find the referenced article. If it does not appear to be in cogprints you will be forwarded to the paracite service. Poorly formated references will probably not work.

Akins, K. 1996. Of sensory systems and the “aboutness” of mental states. Journal of Philosophy, 93: 337-72.

Alston, W. 1997. A Realist Conception of Truth. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Alston, W. 2001. A Sensible Metaphysical Realism. Milwaukee: Marquette University Press.

Anderson, M. L. 2003a. Embodied cognition: a field guide. Artificial Intelligence, 149(1): 91-130.

Anderson, M. L. 2003b. Representations, symbols, and embodiment. Artificial Intelligence, 149(1): 151-6.

Anderson, M. L. 2005. Representation, evolution and embodiment. In: D. Smith (ed.), Evolutionary Biology and the Central Problems of Cognitive Science, special issue of Theoria et Historia Scientarum, 9 (1).

Anderson, M. L. and Oates, T. 2003. Prelinguistic agents will form only egocentric predicates. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26(3): 284-5.

Bermúdez, J. L. 1995a. Ecological perception and the notion of a non-conceptual point of view. In: J. L. Bermúdez,, A. Marcel and N. Eilan (eds) The Body and the Self. MIT Press. pp 153-174.

Bermúdez, J. L. 1995b. Non-conceptual content: From perceptual experience to subpersonal computational states. Mind and Language, 10(4): 333-69.

Bermúdez, J. L. 1998. The Paradox of Self-Consciousness. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Bosco, G. and Poppele, R. 2001. Proprioception from a spinocerebellar perspective. Physiological Reviews, 81: 539-68.

Botvinick, M. and Cohen, J. 1998. Rubber hands ‘feel’ touch that eyes can see. Nature 391: 756.

Chalmers, D. 2003. The Matrix as metaphysics.

Chrisley, R. 1995. Non-conceptual content and robotics: Taking embodiment seriously. In: K. Ford, C. Glymour, and P. Hayes (eds) Android Epistemology. Cambridge, MA: AAAI/MIT Press, pp 141-66.

Clark, A. 1997. Being There: Putting Brain, Brain and World Together Again. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Clark, A. 2001. Visual experience and motor action: are the bonds too tight? Philosophical Review, 110.

Craig, J. and Rollman, G. 1999. Somethesis. Annual Review of Psychology, 50: 305-31.

Davidson, D. 1985. On the very idea of a conceptual scheme. In: Inquiries into Truth and Interpretation. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Devitt, M. 1991. Realism and Truth, 2d ed. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Dijkerman, H.C., Lê, S., Démonet, J.F., and Milner, A.D. 2004. Visuomotor performance in a patient with visual agnosia due to an early lesion. Cognitive Brain Research, in press.

Ellis, R.R. and Lederman, S.J. 1998. The golf-ball illusion: evidence for top-down processing in weight perception. Perception, 27(2): 193-201.

Evans, G. 1982. The Varieties of Reference. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Evans, G. 1985. Molyneux’s question. In: G. Evans (ed) The Collected Papers of Gareth Evans. London: Oxford University Press.

Flanagan, J.R. and Beltzner, M.A. 2000. Independence of perceptual and sensorimotor predictions in the size-weight illusion. Nature Neuroscience, 3(7): 737-41.

Fodor, J. and Pylyshyn, Z. 2002. How direct is visual perception?: Some reflections on Gibson’s “Ecological Approach”. In: Nöe, A. and Thompson, E. (eds) Vision and Mind: Selected Writings in the Philosophy of Perception. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. pp. 167-228.

Gallagher, S. 2003. Bodily self-awareness and object perception. Theoria et Historia Scientarum: International Journal for Interdisciplinary Studies, 7(1).

Gallagher, S. 1986. Body image and body schema: a conceptual clarification. Journal of Mind and Behavior, 7: 541-54.

Gauthier, I., James, T.W., Curby, K., and Tarr, M.J. 2003. The influence of conceptual knowledge on visual discrimination. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 20(3-6): 507-23.

Ghez, C., Gordon, J., and Ghilardi, M.F. 1995. Impairments of reaching movements in patients without proprioception. II. Effects of visual information on accuracy. Journal of Neurophysiology, 73: 361-72.

Gibson, J.J. 1966. The Senses Considered as Perceptual Systems. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Gibson, J.J. 1977. On the analysis of change in the optic array in cotemporary research in visual space and motion perception. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 18: 161-3.

Goldschalk, M., Lemon, R.N., Kuypers, H.G.J.M., and Ronday, H.K. 1984. Cortical afferents and efferents of monkey postarcuate area: an anatomical and electrophysiological study. Experimental Brain Research, 56: 410-24.

Goodale, M.A., Milner, A.D., Jakobson, L.S., and Carey, D.P. 1991. A neurological dissociation between perceiving objects and grasping them. Nature, 349: 154-6.

Goodale, M.A., Murphy, K.J., Meenan, J.-P., Racicot, C.I. and Nicolle, D.A. 1993. Spared object perception but poor object-calibrated grasping in a patient with optic ataxia. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts, 19: 775.

Goodale, M.A., Meenan, J.-P., Bülthoff, H.H., Nicolle, D.A., Murphy, K.J. and Racicot, C.I. 1994. Separate neural pathways for the visual analysis of object shape in perception and prehension. Current Biology, 4: 604-10.

Goodman, N. 1978. Ways of Worldmaking. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishers.

Gregory, R. 1998. Brainy mind. British Medical Journal, 317: 1693-5.

Gregory, R. 2002. Perceptions as hypotheses. In: A. Nöe, A. and E. Thompson, E. (eds) Vision and Mind: Selected Writings in the Philosophy of Perception. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. pp. 111-34.

Gunther, Y. (ed) 2003. Essays on Nonconceptual Content. Cambridge MA: Bradford Books.

Hacking, I. 1983. Representing and Intervening. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Humphrey, G.K., Goodale, M.A., Jakobson, L.S., and Servos, P. 1994. The role of surface information in object recognition: studies of a visual form agnosic and normal subjects. Perception, 23: 1457-81.

Hurford, J. 2003. The neural basis of predicate-argument structure. Behavioral and Brain Sciences.

James, T.W., Culham, J., Humphrey, G.K., Milner, A.D., and Goodale, M.A. 2003. Ventral occipital lesions impair object recognition but not object-directed grasping: an fMRI study. Brain, 126: 2463-75.

James, W. 1912. Essays in Radical Empiricism. New York: Longmans, Green.

James, W. 1981. Pragmatism. Indianapolis: Hackett.

Jeannerod, M. 1997. The Cognitive Neuroscience of Action. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.

Kawai, S. 2002. Constant involvement of haptically perceived size in weight discrimination. Experimental Brain Research, 147(1): 16-22.

McDowell, J. 1994. Mind and World. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Marr, D. 2002. Selections from Vision. In: A. Nöe, A. and E. Thompson, E. (eds) Vision and Mind: Selected Writings in the Philosophy of Perception. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. pp. 229-66.

Matelli, M., Camarda, R., Glickstein M., and Rizzolatti, G. 1986. Afferent and efferent projections of the inferior area 6 in the macaque monkey. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 251: 281-98.

Merleau-Ponty, M. 1962. The Phenomenology of Perception. C. Smith (tr) London: Routledge.

Milner, A.D., Perrett, D.I., Johnston, R.S., Benson, P.J., Jordan, T.R., Heeley, D.W. et al. 1991. Perception and action in “visual form agnosia”. Brain, 114: 405-28.

Milner, A. D. and Goodale, M. 1995. The Visual Brain in Action. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Nicolelis, M., Ghazanfar, A., Stambaugh, C., Olivera, L., Laubach, M., Chapin, J., Nelson, R., and Kass, J. 1998. Simultaneous encoding of tactile information by three primate cortical areas. Nature Neuroscience, 1: 621-631.

Nöe, A. (ed) 2002a. Is the Visual World a Grand Illusion? Special issue of the Journal of Consciousness Studies, 9.

Nöe, A. 2002b. Is the visual world a grand illusion? In: A. Nöe (ed) Is the Visual World a Grand Illusion? Special issue of the Journal of Consciousness Studies, 9.

Nöe, A. and Thompson, E. (eds) 2002a. Vision and Mind: Selected Writings in the Philosophy of Perception. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Nöe, A. and Thompson, E. 2002b. Introduction. In: A. Noe and E. Thompson (eds) Vision and Mind: Selected Writings in the Philosophy of Perception. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

O’Donovan-Anderson, M. 1996. Science & things: Scientific method as embodied access to the world. In: M. O’Donovan-Anderson (ed) The Incorporates Self: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Embodiment. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers.

O’Donovan-Anderson, M. 1997. Content and Comportment: On Embodiment and the Epistemic Availability of the World. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers.

O’Donovan-Anderson, M. 2002. Understanding bodily awareness. Proceedings of Tucson 2002:Towards a Science of Consciousness. Tucson, AZ.

O’Regan, J.K. and Nöe, A. 2001. A sensorimotor account of vision and visual consciousness. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 24.

O’Shaughnessy, B. 1995. Proprioception and the body image. In: J.L. Bermúdez, A. Marcel and N. Elian (eds) The Body and the Self. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. pp.175-203.

O’Shaughnessy, B. 1980. The Will: A Dual Aspect Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Peacocke, C. 1998. Nonconceptual content defined. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 58:2: 381-8.

Peirce, C.S. 1955. The Philosophical Writings of Peirce. J. Buchler (ed) New York: Dover.

Peirce, C.S. 1958. The Collected Papers of Charles Sanders Peirce. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Perenin, M.T. and Vighetto, A. 1983. Optic ataxia: a specific disorder in visuomotor coordination. In: A. Hein and M. Jeannerod (eds) Spatially oriented behavior. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Perenin, M.T. and Vighetto, A. 1988. Optic ataxia: a specific disruption in visuomotor mechanisms. I. Different aspects of the deficit in reaching for objects. Brain, 111: 643-74.

Pinker, S. 1997. How the Mind Works. New York: Norton.

Power, S. 2003. The AIDS rebel. The New Yorker, May 19: 54-67.

Putnam, H. 1981. Reason, Truth and History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Quine, W. V. O. 1969. Ontological Relativity New York: Columbia University Press.

Quine, W. V. O. 1985. Two dogmas of empiricism. In: A. Martinich (ed), The Philosophy of Language, pp. 26-39. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Rizzolatti, G., Camarda, R., Fogassi, L., Gentilucci, M., Luppino, G. and Matelli, M. 1988. Functional organization of inferior area 6 in the macaque monkey. II. Area F5 and the control of distal movements. Experimental Brain Research, 71: 491-507.

Rorty, R. 1979. The world well lost. In: The Consequences of Pragmatism. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Rorty, R. 1991. Objectivity, Relativism and Truth. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Rosenberg, G. and Anderson, M. L. 2004. A brief introduction to the guidance theory of representation. Proceedings of the 26th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society.

Rosenberg, G. and Anderson, M. L. forthcoming. Content and action: the guidance theory of representation.

Sakata, H., Taira, M., Mine, S., and Murata A. 1992. Hand-movement related neurons of the posterior parietal cortex of the monkey: their role in visual guidance of hand movements. In: R. Caminiti, P.B. Johnson and Y. Burnod (eds) Control of Arm Movement in Space. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Sanders, M.D., Warrington, E.K., Marshall, J., and Weiskrantz, L. 1974. “Blindsight”: vision in a field defect. Lancet, 20:707-8.

Schneider, G.E. 1969. Two visual systems: brain mechanisms for localization and discrimination are dissociated by tectal and cortical lesions. Science, 163: 895-902.

Sommer, M. and Wurtz, R. 2002. A pathway in primate brain for internal monitoring of movements. Science, 296: 1480-1482.

Stroud, B. 1984. The Significance of Philosophical Skepticism. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Stroud, B. 2000. Understanding Human Knowledge: Philosophical Essays. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Sutton, R. and Barto, A. 1998. Reinforcement Learning: An Introduction. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Taira, M., Mine, S., Georgopoulos, A.P., Mutara, A., and Sakata, H. 1990. Parietal cortex neurons of the monkey related to the visual guidance of hand movements. Experimental Brain Research, 83: 29-36.

Thompson, E. 1995. Colour Vision. New York: Routledge.

Ungerleider, L.G. and Mishkin, M. 1982. Two cortical visual systems. In: D.J. Ingle, M.A. Goodale and R.J.W. Mansfield (eds) Analysis of Visual Behavior. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Varela, F. J., Thompson, E. and Rosch E. 1991. The Embodied Mind: Cognitive Science and Human Experience. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Weiskrantz, L., Warrington, E.K., Sanders, M.D., and Marshall, J. 1974. Visual capacity in the hemianopic field following a restricted occipital ablation. Brain, 97: 709-28.

Williams, M. 1996. Unnatural Doubts. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Wright, C. 1988. Realism, antirealism, irrealism, quasirealism. In: P. French, T. Uehling, and H. Wettstein (eds), Midwest Studies in Philosophy XII: Realism and Antirealism. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Wright, C. 1994. Truth and Objectivity. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.


Repository Staff Only: item control page