Cogprints

Structural Phenomenology: An Empirically-Based Model of Consciousness

Brown, Dr. Steven Ravett (2003) Structural Phenomenology: An Empirically-Based Model of Consciousness. [Thesis]

Full text available as:

[img]HTML
1743Kb

Abstract

In this dissertation I develop a structural model of phenomenal consciousness that integrates contemporary experimental and theoretical work in philosophy and cognitive science. I argue that phenomenology must be “naturalized” and that it should be acknowledged as a major component of empirical research. I use this model to describe important phenomenal structures, and I then employ it to provide a detailed explication of tip-of-tongue phenomena. The primary aim of “structural phenomenology” is the creation of a general framework within which descriptions of experiences may be organized. The work of Husserl, Gurwitsch, the Gestalt psychologists, and many contemporary philosophers and cognitive scientists reveals several basic parameters underlying subjectivity. Chapter I argues that Husserlian methodology possesses problems both of praxis and of internal logic, and that its phenomenological descriptions cannot have the certainty he claimed. Consequently, an adequate phenomenology must incorporate empirical studies. This conclusion enables explicit transitions between empirical investigations and phenomenological insights. Chapter II introduces the theoretical framework underlying my model. I identify four parameters applicable to all experiences: 1) the degree of volitional emphasis with which something is experienced, i.e., the intensity of our focus on it, 2) the degree of non-volitional emphasis, i.e., the degree to which it is salient, 3) a variant of intentionality I term “directionality”, and 4) the property of recursion. Experiences are embedded within a complex set of relationships that unify and direct a layered phenomenal structure. I support these claims with evidence discovered over the past two centuries of research. Chapter III applies my model to the tip-of-tongue (TOT) state, in which difficulty remembering is accompanied by a sense of active searching. I show that a phenomenological description of the TOT experience is dependent on cognitive data, and that a phenomenological analysis is necessary to properly interpret these data. By showing how structural phenomenology offers a perspective from which to elucidate the results of experimental studies, I hope to clarify and establish the explicit role of introspection in empiricism, and of empiricism in phenomenology.

Item Type:Thesis
Keywords:phenomenology, cognition, tip-of-the-tongue, Husserl, gestalt, empiricism, epistemology, mind, consciousness, structural, recursion
Subjects:Philosophy > Philosophy of Mind
ID Code:3061
Deposited By:Brown, Dr. Steven Ravett
Deposited On:16 Jul 2003
Last Modified:11 Mar 2011 08:55

References in Article

Select the SEEK icon to attempt to find the referenced article. If it does not appear to be in cogprints you will be forwarded to the paracite service. Poorly formated references will probably not work.

Adam, J.J., B. Hommel, and C. Umilta. "Preparing for Perception and Action (I): The Role of Grouping in the Response-Cuing Paradigm." Cognitive Psychology 46 (2003): 302-358.

Ahissar, M., and S. Hochstein. "The Spread of Attention and Learning in Feature Search: Effects of Target Distribution and Task Difficulty." Vision Research 40 (2000): 1349-1364.

Ahn, W.K., J.K. Marsh, C. Luhmann, and K. Lee. "Effect of Theory-Based Feature Correlations on Typicality Judgments." Memory & Cognition 30, no. 1 (2002): 107-118.

Ajzen, I. "Nature and Operation of Attitudes." Annual Review of Psychology 52 (2001): 27-58.

Aksentijevic, A., M.A. Elliott, and P.J. Barber. "Dynamics of Perceptual Grouping: Similarities in the Organization of Visual and Auditory Groups." Visual Cognition 8, no. 3/4/5 (2001): 349-358.

Amit, D.J. "The Hebbian Paradigm Reintegrated: Local Reverberations as Internal Representations." Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18, no. 4 (1995): 617-657.

Anastasi, A. Psychological Testing. 3rd ed. New York, NY: The MacMillan Company, 1969.

Anderson, M. C., E.L. Bjork, and R.A. Bjork. "Retrieval-Induced Forgetting: Evidence for a Recall-Specific Mechanism." Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 7, no. 3 (2000): 522-530.

Anderson, M. C., and C. Green. "Suppressing Unwanted Memories by Executive Control." Nature 410 (2001): 366 - 369.

Anderson, M. C., and B. A. Spellman. "On the Status of Inhibitory Mechanisms in Cognition: Memory Retrieval as a Model Case." Psychological Review 102, no. 1 (1995): 68-100.

Aram, D.M. "Hyperlexia: Reading without Meaning in Young Children." Topics in Language Disorders 17, no. 3 (1997): 1-13.

Arvidson, P. S. "On the Origin of Organization in Consciousness." Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 23, no. 1 (1992): 53-65.

———. "Toward a Phenomenology of Attention." Human Studies 19 (1996): 71-84.

Baars, B. J. A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness. 3rd ed. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 1993a.

———. "The Conscious Access Hypothesis: Origins and Recent Evidence." Trends in Cognitive Sciences 6, no. 1 (2002): 47-53.

———. "A Dozen Competing-Plans Techniques for Inducing Predictable Slips in Speech and Action." In Experimental Slips and Human Error: Exploring the Architecture of Volition, edited by B. J. Baars, 129-150. New York, NY: Plenum Press, 1992.

———. "Putting the Focus on the Fringe." Consciousness and Cognition 2, no. 2 (1993b): 126-136.

Bailey, A.R. "Beyond the Fringe: William James on the Transitional Parts of the Stream of Consciousness." Journal of Consciousness Studies 6, no. 2-3 (1999): 141-153.

Baylis, G.C., and J. Driver. "Visual Attention and Objects: Evidence for Hierarchical Coding of Location." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 19, no. 3 (1993): 451-470.

Beck, D.M., G. Rees, C. Frith, and N. Lavie. "Neural Correlates of Change Detection and Change Blindness." Nature Neuroscience 4, no. 6 (2001): 645-650.

Belousek, D. W. "Husserl on Scientific Method and Conceptual Change: A Realist Appraisal." Synthese 115, no. 1 (1998): 71-98.

Benso, F., M. Turatto, G.G. Mascetti, and C. Umilta. "The Time Course of Attentional Focusing." European Journal of Cognitive Psychology 10, no. 4 (1998): 373-388.

Benussi, V. "Zur Psychologie Des Gestalterfassens." In Untersuchungen Zur Gegenstandstheorie Und Psychologie, 1907.

Bergen, B., and N.C. Chang. "Spatial Schematicity of Prepositions in Neural Grammar." Paper presented at the The Fifth International Conference on Conceptual Structure, Discourse and Language, University of California at Santa Barbara, CA, May 11-14 2000.

Bernet, R., I. Kern, and E. Marbach. An Introduction to Husserlian Phenomenology. Edited by John McCumber, Northwestern University Studies in Phenomenology and Existential Philosophy. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 1999.

Bjork, E.L., R.A. Bjork, and M. C. Anderson. "Varieties of Goal-Directed Forgetting." In Intentional Forgetting: Interdisciplinary Approaches, edited by J.M. Golding and C.M. MacLeod. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1998.

Block, N. "Paradox and Cross Purposes in Recent Work on Consciousness." Cognition 79 (2001): 197-219.

Bloom, P., M.A. Peterson, L. Nadel, and M. F. Garrett, eds. Language and Space. Cambridge, MA: Bradford, 1996.

BonJour, L. The Structure of Empirical Knowledge. 1st ed. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1985.

Boronat, C.B., and G. D. Logan. "The Role of Attention in Automatization: Does Attention Operate at Encoding, or Retrieval, or Both?" Memory & Cognition 25, no. 1 (1997): 36-46.

Bousfield, W.A. "The Occurrence of Clustering in the Recall of Randomly Arranged Associates." Journal of General Psychology 49 (1953): 229-240.

Brainerd, C.J., D.G. Payne, R. Wright, and V.F. Reyna. "Phantom Recall." Journal of Memory and Language 48 (2003): 445-467.

Braun, J. Commentary On: Arien Mack & Irvin Rock (1998) Psyche, 2001 [accessed March 2003]. Available from http://psyche.cs.monash.edu.au/v7/psyche-7-06-braun.html.

Brefczynski, J.A., and E.A. DeYoe. "A Physiological Correlate of the ‘Spotlight’ of Visual Attention." Nature Neuroscience 2, no. 4 (1999): 370-374.

Brown, A.S. "A Review of the Tip-of-the-Tongue Experience." Psychological Bulletin 109, no. 2 (1991): 204-223.

Brown, J.W. "The Nature of Voluntary Action." Brain and Cognition 10, no. 1 (1989): 105-120.

Brown, M., and D. Besner. "Semantic Priming: On the Role of Awareness in Visual Word Recognition in the Absence of an Expectancy." Consciousness and Cognition 11 (2002): 402-422.

Brown, R., and D. McNeill. "The "Tip-of-the-Tongue" Phenomenon." Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 5 (1966): 325-337.

Brown, S.R. "Tip-of-the-Tongue Phenomena: An Introductory Phenomenological Analysis." Consciousness and Cognition 9, no. 4 (2000): 516-537.

Buchanan, L., and C. Westbury. "Characterizing Semantic Space: Neighborhood Effects in Word Recognition." Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 8, no. 3 (2001): 531-544.

Burke, D. M., D. G. MacKay, J. A. Worthley, and E. Wade. "On the Tip of the Tongue: What Causes Word Finding Failures in Young and Older Adults?" Journal of Memory and Language 30, no. 5 (1991): 542-579.

Cariani, P. "On the Design of Devices with Emergent Semantic Functions." State University of New York, 1989.

———. "Regenerative Process in Life and Mind." In Organizations and Their Dynamics, edited by J.L.R. Chandler and G. Van de Vijver, 26-34. New York, NY: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 2000.

Carnap, R. Introduction to Semantics and Formalization of Logic. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1961.

Caza, N., S. Belleville, and B. Gilbert. "How Loss of Meaning with Preservation of Phonological Word Form Affects Immediate Serial Recall Performance: A Linguistic Account." Neurocase 8 (2002): 255-273.

Chainay, H., and G.W. Humphreys. "Privileged Access to Action for Objects Relative to Words." Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 9, no. 2 (2002): 348-355.

Chomsky, N. "Review of Skinner's Verbal Behavior." In Readings in the Psychology of Language, edited by L.A. Jakobovits and M.S. Miron, 142-171. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1967.

Chuah, Y.M.L., and M.T. Maybery. "Verbal and Spatial Short Term Memory: Two Sources of Developmental Evidence Consistent with Common Underlying Processes." International Journal of Psychology 34, no. 516 (1999): 374-377.

Cohen, M. S., and J. T. Freeman. "Understanding and Enhancing Critical Thinking in Recognition-Based Decision Making." In Decision Making under Stress: Emerging Themes and Applications, edited by R. Flin and L. Martin: Avebury Aviation, Army Research Institute, 1998.

Compte, A., N. Brunel, P.S. Goldman-Rakic, and Xiao-Jing Wang. "Synaptic Mechanisms and Network Dynamics Underlying Spatial Working Memory in a Cortical Network Model." Cerebral Cortex 10 (2000): 910-923.

Connor, L.T., D.A. Balota, and J.H. Neely. "On the Relation between Feeling of Knowing and Lexical Decision: Persistent Subthreshold Activation or Topic Familiarity?" Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition 18, no. 3 (1992): 544-554.

Corbetta, M., and G.L. Shulman. "Control of Goal-Directed and Stimulus-Driven Attention in the Brain." Nature Reviews Neuroscience 3, no. 3 (2002): 201-215.

Coren, S., and L.H. Theodor. "Subjective Contour: The Inadequacy of Brightness Contrast as an Explanation." Journal of Experimental Psychology 80 (1975): 517-524.

Coulson, S., J.W. King, and M. Kutas. "Expect the Unexpected: Event-Related Brain Response to Morphosyntactic Violations." Language and Cognitive Processes 13, no. 1 (1998): 21-58.

Cowan, N., and M.A. Stadler. "Estimating Unconscious Processes: Implications of a General Class of Models." Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 125, no. 2 (1996): 195-200.

Cowan, N., N.L. Wood, P.K. Wood, T.A. Keller, L.D. Nugent, and C.V. Keller. "Two Separate Verbal Processing Rates Contributing to Short-Term Memory Span." Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 127, no. 2 (1998): 141-160.

Craik, F.I.M. "Levels of Processing: Past, Present . . . And Future?" Memory 10, no. 5/6 (2002): 305-318.

Crick, F., and C. Koch. "A Framework for Consciousness." Nature Neuroscience 6, no. 2 (2003): 119-126.

Dallenbach, K.M. "The Measurement of Attention." The American Journal of Psychology 24, no. 4 (1913): 465-507.

Davis, G. "Between-Object Binding and Visual Attention." Visual Cognition 8, no. 3/4/5 (2001): 411-430.

Deese, J. The Structure of Associations in Language and Thought. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1965.

Delevoye-Turrell, Y., A. Giersch, and J-M. Danion. "Abnormal Sequencing of Motor Actions in Patients with Schizophrenia: Evidence from Grip Force Adjustments During Object Manipulation." American Journal of Psychiatry 160 (2003): 134-141.

Dennett, D. C. "Quining Qualia." In Consciousness in Contemporary Science, edited by A. J. Marcel and E. Bisiach, 42-77. New York, NY: Oxford University Press Inc., 1994.

Dowling, W. J. "Melodic Contour in Hearing and Remembering Melodies." In Musical Perceptions, edited by R. Aiello and J.A. Sloboda, 173-190. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Dreyfus, H. L. "The Current Relevance of Merleau-Ponty's Phenomenology of Embodiment." Electronic Journal of Analytic Philosophy 4 (1996).

Drummond, J. "A Critique of Gurwitsch's Phenomenological Phenomenalism." Southern Journal of Philosophy 18 (1980): 9-21.

Duncan, J. "Selective Attention and the Organization of Visual Information." Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 113, no. 4 (1984): 501-517.

Ebbinghaus, H. Memory: A Contribution to Experimental Psychology. Translated by H.A. Ruger and C.E. Bussenius. New York, NY: Dover Publications, 1964.

———. Memory: A Contribution to Experimental Psychology. New York, NY: Dover Publications, 1987.

Engelkamp, J., and H.D. Zimmer. "Free Recall and Organization as a Function of Varying Relational Encoding in Action Memory." Psychological Research 66 (2002): 91-98.

Engelkamp, J., H.D. Zimmer, and G. Mohr. "Differential Memory Effects of Concrete Nouns and Action Verbs." Zeitschrift für Psychologie Mit Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Psychologie 198, no. 2 (1990): 189-216.

Enns, J.T., and V. Di Lollo. "An Object Substitution Theory of Visual Masking." In From Fragments to Objects: Segmentation and Grouping in Vision, edited by T.F. Shipley and P.J. Kellman, 121-143. New York, NY: Elsevier, 2001.

Eriksen, C.W.W., and J.E. Hoffman. "Temporal and Spatial Characteristics of Selective Encoding from Visual Displays." Perception & Psychophysics 12 (1972): 201-204.

Estes, W.K. "Interactions of Signal and Background Variables in Visual Processing." Perception and Psychophysics 12 (1972): 278-286.

Evans, J. St. B. T. Bias in Human Reasoning: Causes and Consequences. Hove, UK: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Ltd., 1989.

Fabre-Thorpe, M., A. Delorme, C. Marlot, and S.J. Thorpe. "A Limit to the Speed of Processing in Ultra-Rapid Visual Categorization of Novel Natural Scenes." Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 13, no. 2 (2001): 171-180.

Fauconnier, G., and E. Sweetser. Spaces, Worlds, and Grammar. Edited by G. Fouconnier, G. Lakoff and E. Sweetser. 1st ed. Vol. 2, Cognitive Theory of Language and Culture. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press, 1996.

Fauconnier, G., and M. Turner. "Conceptual Integration Networks." Cognitive Science 22, no. 2 (1998): 133-187.

———. "The Many-Space Model of Conceptual Projection." 1996.

———. The Way We Think: Conceptual Blending and the Mind's Hidden Complexities. New York, NY: Basic Books, 2002.

Faulkner, D., and J.K. Foster. The Decoupling of "Explicit" and "Implicit" Processing in Neuropsychological Disorders: Insights into the Neural Basis of Consciousness? Psyche, January 2002 [accessed 2 8]. Available from http://psyche.cs.monash.edu.au/v8/psyche-8-02-faulkner.html.

Fechner, G.T. Elemente Der Psychophysik (1860). Edited by R.H. Wozniak. Vol. 4/5, Classics in Psychology, 1855-1914. Bristol, Great Britain: Thoemmes Press, 2001.

Fernandez-Duque, D., and M. Johnson. "Attention Metaphors: How Metaphors Guide the Cognitive Psychology of Attention." Cognitive Science 23, no. 1 (1999): 83-110.

Fodor, J. A. The Language of Thought. Edited by J. J. Katz, D. T. Langendoen and G. A. Miller, The Language & Thought Series. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1975.

Føllesdal, D. "Husserl's Notion of Noema." The Journal of Philosophy 66, no. 20 (1969): 680-687.

Forstater, M. "Policy Innovation as a Discovery Procedure: Exploring the Tacit Fringes of the Policy Formulation Process." 1-22. Gettysburg, PA: The Jerome Levy Economics Institute, Gettysburg College, 1997.

Galin, D. "The Structure of Awareness; Contemporary Applications of William James's Forgotten Concept of "the Fringe"." Journal of Mind and Behavior 15, no. 4 (1994): 375-402.

Galizio, M., K.L. Stewart, and C. Pilgrim. "Clustering in Artificial Categories: An Equivalence Analysis." Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 8, no. 3 (2001): 609-614.

Gallagher, S. "Self-Reference and Schizophrenia: A Cognitive Model of Immunity to Error through Misidentification." In Exploring the Self: Philosophical and Psychopathological Perspectives on Self-Experience, edited by D. Zahavi, 203-239. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: John Benjamins Publishing Co., 2000.

———. "Suggestions Towards a Revision of Husserl's Phenomenology of Time-Consciousness." Man and World 12 (1979): 445-464.

Gardner, H. The Mind's New Science. New York, NY: BasicBooks, 1985.

Garner, W.R. The Processing of Information and Structure. Potomac, MD: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1974.

Gehring, W.J., and D.E. Fencsik. "Functions of the Medial Frontal Cortex in the Processing of Conflict and Errors." The Journal of Neuroscience 21, no. 23 (2001): 9430-9437.

Geissler, L.R. "The Measurement of Attention." The American Journal of Psychology 20, no. 4 (1909): 473-529.

Gennari, S. P., S. A. Sloman, B.C. Malt, and W.T. Fitch. "Motion Events in Language and Cognition." Cognition 83 (2002): 49-79.

Gernsbacher, M. A. Language Comprehension as Structure Building. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1990.

———. "Two Decades of Structure Building." Discourse Processes 23, no. 3 (1997): 265-304.

Gernsbacher, M. A., and M. E. Faust. "The Mechanism of Suppression: A Component of General Comprehension Skill." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 17 (1991): 245-262.

Gernsbacher, M. A., B. Keysar, R.R.W. Robertson, and N Werner, K. "The Role of Suppression and Enhancement in Understanding Metaphors." Journal of Memory and Language 45 (2001): 433-450.

Ghetti, S. "Memory for Nonoccurrences: The Role of Metacognition." Journal of Memory and Language 48 (2003): 722-739.

Giorgi, A. Phenomenology and Psychological Research. Pittsburgh, PA: Duquesne University Press, 1985.

Glosser, G., R.B. Friedman, and D.P. Roeltgen. "Clues to the Cognitive Organization of Reading and Writing from Developmental Hyperlexia." Neuropsychology 10, no. 2 (1996): 168-175.

Gobet, F., P.C.R. Lane, S. Croker, P. C-H. Cheng, G. Jones, I. Oliver, and J.M. Pine. "Chunking Mechanisms in Human Learning." Trends in Cognitive Sciences 5, no. 6 (2001): 236-243.

Gödel, K. On Formally Undecidable Propositions of Principia Mathematica and Related Systems. Translated by B. Meltzer and R. B. Braithwaite. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, Inc., 1992.

Goldman, A. I. Epistemology and Cognition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1986.

Goldstone, R.L., and B.J. Rogosky. "Using Relations within Conceptual Systems to Translate across Conceptual Systems." Cognition 84 (2002): 295-320.

Gopnik, A. "Explanation as Orgasm." Minds and Machines 8 (1998): 101-118.

Gopnik, A., C. Glymour, D.M. Sobel, L.E. Schulz, T. Kushnir, and D. Danks. "A Theory of Causal Learning in Children: Causal Maps and Bayes Nets." Psychological Review In Press (2003).

Gorno-Tempini, M.L., R. Wenman, C. Price, P. Rudge, and L. Cipolotti. "Identification without Naming: A Functional Neuroimaging Study of an Anomic Patient." Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 70, no. 397-400 (2001).

Gratton, G., M.G. Coles, E.J. Sirevaag, C.W. Eriksen, and E. Donchin. "Pre- and Poststimulus Activation of Response Channels: A Psychophysiological Analysis." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 14, no. 3 (1988): 331-344.

Gregory, R.I., and J.P. Harris. "Illusory Contours and Stereo Depth." Perception & Psychophysics 15 (1974): 411-416.

Grossberg, S. "Adaptive Pattern Classification and Universal Recoding: I. Parallel Development and Coding of Neural Feature Detectors." Biological Cybernetics 23 (1976): 121-134.

———. "Cortical Dynamics of Three-Dimensional Figure-Ground Perception of Two-Dimensional Pictures." Psychological Review 104, no. 3 (1997): 618-658.

———. "How Does a Brain Build a Cognitive Code?" Psychological Review 87 (1980): 1-51.

———. "How Does the Cerebral Cortex Work? Learning, Attention, and Grouping by the Laminar Circuits of Visual Cortex." Spatial Vision 12, no. 2 (1999a): 163-185.

———. "The Link between Brain Learning, Attention, and Consciousness." Consciousness and Cognition 8 (1999b): 1-44.

Grossberg, S., and M. Kuperstein. Neural Dynamics of Adaptive Sensory-Motor Control: Expanded Edition, Neural Networks: Research and Applications. New York, NY: Pergamon Press, 1989.

Grossberg, S., and E. Mingolla. "The Role of Illusory Contours in Visual Segmentation." edited by S. Petry and G.E. Meyer. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag, 1987.

Grossberg, S., E. Mingolla, and W.D. Ross. "Visual Brain and Visual Perception: How Does the Cortex Do Perceptual Grouping?" Trends in Neurosciences 20, no. 3 (1997): 106-111.

Grossberg, S., and R.D.S. Raizada. "Contrast-Sensitive Perceptual Grouping and Object-Based Attention in the Laminar Circuits of Primary Visual Cortex." Vision Research 40 (2000): 1413-1432.

Grush, R. "The Emulation Theory of Representation: Motor Control, Imagery, and Perception." Behavioral and Brain Sciences In Press (2003).

Gurwitsch, A. The Field of Consciousness. Edited by A. van Kaam, Duquesne Studies: Psychological Series. Pittsburgh, PA: Duquesne University Press, 1964.

———. Marginal Consciousness. Edited by L. Embree, Series in Continental Thought. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 1985.

———. Studies in Phenomenology and Psychology. Edited by J. Wild. 5th ed, Northwestern University Studies in Phenomenology and Existential Philosophy. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 1966.

———. "William James' Theory of the 'Transitive Parts' of the Stream of Consciousness." Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 3 (1943): 449-477.

Gutting, G. "Husserl and Scientific Realism." Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 39, no. 1 (1978): 42-56.

Hanson, N. R. Patterns of Discovery; an Inquiry into the Conceptual Foundations of Science. Cambridge [Eng.]: Cambridge University Press, 1965.

Hardcastle, V.G. "The Puzzle of Attention, the Importance of Metaphors." Philosophical Psychology 11, no. 3 (1998): 331-351.

Harnad, S. "Connecting Object to Symbol in Modeling Cognition." edited by A. Clark and R. Lutz. London: Springer Verlag, 1992.

Harrison, R. R. and Koch, C. "A Silicon Implementation of the Fly's Optomotor Control System." Neural Computation 12 (2000): 2291-2304.

Hart, J.T. "Memory and the Feeling-of-Knowing Experience." Journal of Educational Psychology 56, no. 4 (1965): 208-216.

———. "Memory and the Memory-Monitoring Process." Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior 6, no. 5 (1967a): 685-691.

———. "Methodological Note on Feeling-of-Knowing Experiments." Journal of Educational Psychology 57, no. 6 (1967b): 347-349.

Hasher, L., and R. T. Zacks. "Automatic and Effortful Processes in Memory." Journal of Experimental Psychology 108, no. 3 (1979): 356-388.

Herz, R.S. "An Examination of Objective and Subjective Measure Sof Experience Associated to Odors, Music, and Paintings." Empirical Studies of the Arts 16, no. 2 (1998): 137-152.

Hodsoll, J., and G. Humphrey. "Driving Attention with the Top Down: The Relative Contribution of Target Templates to the Linear Separability Effect in the Size Dimension." Perception & Psychophysics 63, no. 5 (2001): 918-926.

Hoffman, D.D., and M. Singh. "Salience of Visual Parts." Cognition 63 (1997): 29--78.

Hollingworth, A., and J.M. Henderson. "Accurate Visual Memory for Previously Attended Objects in Natural Scenes." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 28, no. 1 (2002): 113-136.

Humphreys, G.W. "A Multi-Stage Account of Binding in Vision: Neuropsychological Evidence." Visual Cognition 8, no. 3/4/5 (2001): 381-410.

Hurlburt, R.T. "Randomly Sampling Thinking in the Natural Environment." Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 65, no. 6 (1997).

Hurlburt, R.T., and C.L. Heavey. "Descriptive Experience Sampling Demonstrates the Connection of Thinking to Externally Observable Behavior." Cognitive Therapy and Research 26 (2002a): 117-134.

———. "Interobserver Reliability of Descriptive Experience Sampling." Cognitive Therapy and Research 26 (2002b): 135-142.

———. "Telling What We Know: Describing Inner Experience." Trends in Cognitive Sciences 5, no. 9 (2001).

Husserl, E. Cartesian Meditations: An Introduction to Phenomenology. Translated by D. Cairns. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1995.

———. Experience and Judgment. Translated by J. S. Churchill and K. Ameriks. Edited by J. Wild, Northwestern University Studies in Phenomenology & Existential Philosophy. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 1977a.

———. The Idea of Phenomenology. Translated by W. P. Alston and G. Nakhnikian. Fourth ed. The Hague, Netherlands: Marinus Nijhoff, 1970.

———. Ideas Pertaining to a Pure Phenomenology and to a Phenomenological Philosophy: First Book: General Introduction to a Pure Phenomenology. Edited by R. Bernet. 4th ed. Vol. II, Edmund Husserl: Collected Works. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998a.

———. Ideas Pertaining to a Pure Phenomenology and to a Phenomenological Philosophy: Second Book: Studies in the Phenomenology of Constitution. Edited by R. Bernet. 4th ed. Vol. III, Edmund Husserl: Collected Works. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998b.

———. Logical Investigations. Translated by J.N. Findlay. Vol. I, International Library of Philosophy. New York, NY: Routledge, 2001a.

———. Logical Investigations. Translated by J.N. Findlay. Vol. II, International Library of Philosophy. New York, NY: Routledge, 2001b.

———. On the Phenomenology of the Consciousness of Internal Time. Edited by R. Bernet. Vol. IV, Edmund Husserl: Collected Works. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1990.

———. Phenomenological Psychology: Lectures, Summer Semester, 1925. Translated by J. Scanlon. The Hague, Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff, 1977b.

———. Phenomenology and the Crisis of Philosophy. Translated by Q. Lauer, The Academy Library. New York, NY: Harper & Row, 1965.

Idesawa, M., and Q. Zhang. "Newly Found Visual Illusions and 3-D Display." Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers Transactions on Electronics (IEICE) E82-C, no. 10 (1999): 1823-1830.

Ihde, D. Experimental Phenomenology: An Introduction. New York, NY: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1977.

Irwin, D.E. "Integrating Information across Saccadic Eye Movements." Current Directions in Psychological Science 5, no. 3 (1996): 94-100.

Irwin, D.E., and G.J. Zelinsky. "Eye Movements and Scene Perception: Memory for Things Observed." Perception & Psychophysics 64, no. 6 (2002): 882-895.

Jack, A.I., and T. Shallice. "Introspective Physicalism as an Approach to the Science of Consciousness." Cognition 79 (2001): 161-196.

Jakab, Z. "Phenomenal Projection." Psyche 9, no. 4 (2003).

James, L.E., and D. M. Burke. "Phonological Priming Effects on Word Retrival and Tip-of-the-Tongue Experiences in Young and Older Adults." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 26, no. 6 (2000): 1378-1391.

James, W. Essays in Radical Empiricism. 2nd ed. Lincoln, NB: University of Nebraska Press, 1996.

———. The Principles of Psychology. 1890 ed. Vol. II. New York, NY: Dover Publications, Inc., 1950a.

———. The Principles of Psychology. 1890 ed. Vol. I. New York, NY: Dover Publications, Inc., 1950b.

Jentzsch, I., and W. Sommer. "The Effect of Intentional Expectancy on Mental Processing: A Chronopsychophysiological Investigation." Acta Psychologica 111 (2002): 265-282.

Johnson, J.E., and T.P. Petzel. "Temporal Orientation and Time Estimation in Chronic Schizophrenics." Journal of Clinical Psychology 27, no. 2 (1971): 194-196.

Johnson, M. The Body in the Mind. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1987.

———. Moral Imagination: Implications of Cognitive Science for Ethics. 1st ed. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1993.

———. "Something in the Way She Moves." 1999.

Johnson, S. "Visual Development in Human Infants: Binding Features, Furfaces, and Objects." Visual Cognition 8, no. 3/4/5 (2001): 565-578.

Johnson, S.C., L.C. Baxter, L.S. Wilder, J.G. Pipe, J.E. Heiserman, and G.P. Prigatano. "Neural Correlates of Self-Reflection." Brain 125 (2002): 1808-1814.

Johnson-Laird, P. N. "Mental Models and Probabilistic Thinking." Cognition 50 (1994).

Johnston, J.C., R.S. McCann, and R.W. Remington. "Chronometric Evidence for Two Types of Attention." Psychological Science 6, no. 6 (1995): 365-369.

Kahana, M.J. "Associative Symmetry and Memory Theory." Memory & Cognition 30, no. 6 (2002): 823-840.

Kandel, S., J-P. Orliaguet, and L-J. Boë. "Detecting Anticipatory Events in Handwriting Movements." Perception 29 (2000): 953-964.

Ketner, K. L. "Peirce and Turing: Comparisons and Conjectures." Semiotica 68, no. 1/2 (1988): 33-61.

Kikyo, H., K. Ohki, and K. Sekihara. "Temporal Characterization of Memory Retrieval Processes: An Fmri Study of the 'Tip-of-the-Tongue' Phenomenon." European Journal of Neuroscience 14 (2001): 887-892.

Kitcher, P. The Advancement of Science; Science without Legend, Objectivity without Illusions. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Kobayashi, S. "An Updated Bibliography of Picture-Memory Studies." Perceptual and Motor Skills 61 (1985): 91-122.

Koffka, K. Principles of Gestalt Psychology. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc., 1963.

Köhler, W. Gestalt Psychology: An Introduction to New Concepts in Modern Psychology. 4th ed. New York, NY: New American Library of World Literature, Inc., 1962.

———. The Selected Papers of Wolfgang Kohler. Edited by M. Henle. 1st ed. New York, NY: Liveright Publishing Corp., 1971.

———. "Über Unbemerkte Empfindungen Und Ursteilstäuschungen." Zeitschrift für Psychologie 66 (1913).

Koriat, A. "Memory's Knowledge of Its Own Knowledge: The Accessibility Account of the Feeling of Knowing." edited by J. Metcalfe and A. P. Shimamura, 115-136. Cambridge, MA: Bradford, 1994.

Kubovy, M., and D. Van Valkenburg. "Auditory and Visual Objects." Cognition 80, no. 1/2 (2001): 97-126.

Kuhn, T. S. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. 1st ed. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press, 1964.

LaBerge, D., and S. J. Samuels. "Toward a Theory of Automatic Information Processing in Reading." Cognitive Psychology 6 (1974): 293-323.

Lakoff, G. Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things. 2nd ed. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press, 1990.

Lakoff, G., and M. Johnson. Metaphors We Live By. 1st ed. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press, 1980.

Lakoff, G., and R.E. Núñez. Where Mathematics Comes From: How the Embodied Mind Brings Mathematics into Being. New York, NY: Basic Books, 2000.

Langacker, R.W. Foundations of Cognitive Grammar: Theoretical Prerequisites. Vol. I. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1987.

Langdon, R., and M. Coltheart. "The Cognitive Neuropsychology of Delusions." Mind & Language 15, no. 1 (2000): 184-218.

Lawless, H., and T. Engen. "Associations to Odors: Interference, Mnemonics, and Verbal Labeling." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning & Memory 3, no. 1 (1977): 52-59.

Lehar, S. The World in Your Head: A Gestalt View of the Mechanism of Conscious Experience. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2002.

Lehmann, H.E. "Time and Psychopathology." Annals of the New York Academy of Science 138, no. 2 (1967): 798-821.

Leopold, D.A., A.J. O'Toole, T. Vetter, and V. Blanz. "Prototype-Referenced Shape Encoding Revealed by High-Level Aftereffects." Nature Neuroscience 4, no. 1 (2001): 89-94.

Lesher, G.W. "Illusory Contours: Toward a Neurally Based Perceptual Theory." Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 2, no. 3 (1995).

Levelt, W.J.M., A. Roelofs, and A.S. Meyer. "A Theory of Lexical Access in Speech Production." Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (1999): 1-75.

Levin, D. M. Reason and Evidence in Husserl's Phenomenology. Edited by J. Wild, Northwestern University Studies in Phenomenology & Existential Philosophy. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 1970.

Levinson, S.C., S. Kita, D.B.M. Haun, and B.H. Rasch. "Returning the Tables: Language Affects Spatial Reasoning." Cognition 84 (2002): 155-188.

Li, F.F., R. VanRullen, C. Koch, and P. Perona. "Rapid Natural Scene Categorization in the near Absence of Attention." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 99, no. 14 (2002): 9596-9601.

Libet, B. "The Timing of Mental Events: Libet's Experimental Findings and Their Implications." Consciousness and Cognition 11 (2002): 291-299.

———. "Unconscious Cerebral Initiative and the Role of Conscious Will in Voluntary Action." The Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8 (1985): 529-566.

Lind, R. "Is Phenomenology Testable?" Southwest Philosophical Studies 8 (1982): 85-94.

Loftus, G.R., and J. Hogden. "Extraction of Information from Complex Visual Stimuli: Memory Performance and Phenomenological Appearance." In The Psychology of Learning and Motivation: Advances in Research and Theory, edited by G.H. Bower. Orlando, FL: Academic Press, 1988.

Logan, G. D. "The Code Theory of Visual Attention: An Integration of Space-Based and Object-Based Attention." Psychological Review 103, no. 4 (1996): 603-649.

Logan, G. D., C. Taylor, and J.L. Etherton. "Attention and Automaticity: Toward a Theoretical Integration." Psychological Research 62 (1999): 165-181.

Lopez, S. R., and P. J. Guarnaccia. "Cultural Psychopathology: Uncovering the Social World of Mental Illness." Annual Review of Psychology 51 (2000): 571-598.

Lynn, F. M. "The Interplay of Science and Values in Assessing and Regulating Environmental Risks." Science Technology & Human Values 11, no. 1, Spring (1986): 40-50.

Mack, A., and I. Rock. Inattentional Blindness. Edited by S.E. Palmer, Mit Press/Bradford Books Series in Cognitive Psychology. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1998.

Maddox, W.T., F.G. Ashby, and E.M. Waldron. "Multiple Attention Systems in Perceptual Categorization." Memory & Cognition 30, no. 3 (2002): 325-339.

Mangan, B. "Sensation's Ghost: The Non-Sensory "Fringe" of Consciousness." Psyche 7, no. 18 (2001).

———. "Taking Phenomenology Seriously: The "Fringe" and Its Implications for Cognitive Research." Consciousness and Cognition 2 (1993): 89-108.

Manschreck, T.C., B.A. Maher, S.F. Candela, D. Redmond, D. Yurgelun-Todd, and M. Tsuang. "Impaired Verbal Memory Is Associated with Impaired Motor Performance in Schizophrenia: Relationship to Brain Structure." Schizophrenia Research 43, no. 1 (2000): 21-32.

Marbach, E. "Two Directions of Epistemology: Husserl and Piaget." Revue Internationale de Philosophie 36 (1982): 435-469.

Maringelli, F., and C. Umilta. "The Control of the Attentional Focus." European Journal of Cognitive Psychology 10, no. 3 (1998): 225-246.

Martinez, L.M., and J.M. Alonso. "Construction of Complex Receptive Field in Cat Primary Visual Cortex." Neuron 32 (2001): 515-525.

Mathalon, D.H., W.O. Faustman, and J.M. Ford. "N400 and Automatic Semantic Processing Abnormalities in Patients with Schizophrenia." Archives of General Psychiatry 59 (2002): 641-648.

Mattson, M.E., and B. J. Baars. "Laboratory Induction of Nonspeech Action Errors." In Experimental Slips and Human Error: Exploring the Architecture of Volition, edited by B. J. Baars, 151-193. New York, NY: Plenum Press, 1992.

McCarthy, R.A., and L.D. Kartsounis. "Wobbly Words: Refractory Anomia with Preserved Semantics." Neurocase 6 (2000): 487-497.

McFalls, E.L., and P.J. Schwanenflugel. "The Influence of Contextual Constraints on Recall for Words within Sentences." The American Journal of Psychology 115, no. 1 (2002): 67-88.

McInerney, P.K. "What Is Still Valuable in Husserl's Analyses If Inner Time-Consciousness." The Journal of Philosophy 83, no. 11 (1988): 605-616.

Mead, C. Analog Vlsi and Neural Systems. New York, NY: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc., 1988.

Mendola, J.D., A.M. Dale, B. Fischl, A.K. Lui, and R.B.H. Tootell. "The Representation of Illusory and Real Contours in Human Cortical Visual Areas Revealed by Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging." Journal of Neuroscience 19 (1999): 8560-8572.

Merleau-Ponty, M. Phenomenology of Perception. Edited by Ted Honderich. 1st ed, International Library of Philosophy and Scientific Method. New York, NY: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1970.

———. "Reading Notes and Comments on Aron Gurwitsch's the Field of Consciousness." Husserl Studies 17 (2001): 173-193.

———. The Structure of Behavior. Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 1968.

Metcalfe, J. "Novelty Monitoring, Metacognition, and Control in a Composite Holographic Associative Recall Model: Implications for Korsakoff Amnesia." Psychological Review 100, no. 1 (1993): 3-22.

Metcalfe, J., B.L. Schwartz, and S.G. Joaquim. "The Cue-Familiarity Heuristic in Metacognition." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 19, no. 4 (1993): 851-861.

Metcalfe, J., and A.P. Shimamura. Metacognition: Knowing About Knowing. 2nd ed. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1996.

Minsky, M., and S. Papert. Perceptrons: An Introduction to Computational Geometry. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1969.

Mirvish, A. "The Presuppositions of Husserl's Presuppositionless Philosophy." Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 26, no. 2 (1995): 147-170.

Mitchell, D.B. , and R.R. Hunt. "How Much "Effort" Should Be Devoted to Memory?" Memory & Cognition 17, no. 3 (1989): 337-348.

Miyashita, Y., and T. Hayashi. "Neural Representation of Visual Objects: Encoding and Top-Down Activation." Current Opinion in Neurobiology 10, no. 2 (2000): 187-194.

Mohanty, J.N. "Husserl's Transcendental Phenomenology and Essentialism." Review of Metaphysics 32 (1978): 299-321.

Moray, N. "Attention in Dichotic Listening: Affective Cues and the Influence of Instructions." Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 11 (1959): 56-60.

Most, S.B., D.J. Simons, B.J. Scholl, and C.F. Chabris. "Sustained Inattentional Blindness: The Role of Location in the Detection of Unexpected Dynamic Events." Psyche 6, no. 14 (2000).

Moustakas, C. E. Phenomenological Research Methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc., 1994.

Mozer, M.C. "A Principle for Unsupervised Hierarchical Decomposition of Visual Scenes." In Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems, edited by M.S. Kearns, S.A. Solla and D. Cohn, 52-58. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1999.

Mozer, M.C., R.S. Zemel, M. Behrmann, and C.K.I. Williams. "Learning to Segment Images Using Dynamic Feature Binding." Neural Computation 4 (1992): 650-666.

Müller, M.M., and R. Hübner. "Can the Spotlight of Attention Be Shaped Like a Doughnut?" Psychological Science 13, no. 2 (2002): 119-124.

Müller-Gethmann, H., G. Rinkenauer, J. Stahl, and R. Ulrich. "Preparation of Response Force and Movement Direction: Onset Effects on the Lateralized Readiness Potential." Psychophysiology 37 (2000): 507-514.

Munnich, E., B. Landau, and B.A. Dosher. "Spatial Language and Spatial Representation: A Cross-Linguistic Comparison." Cognition 81 (2001): 171-207.

Nairne, J.S. "Remembering over the Short Term: The Case against the Standard Model." Annual Review of Psychology 53 (2002): 53-81.

Neisser, U. Cognitive Psychology, The Century Psychology Series. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1967.

Nelson, D.G.K. "The Nature and Occurrence of Holistic Processing." In Object Perception: Structure and Process, edited by B.E. Shepp and S. Ballesteros, 357-386. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., 1989.

Nelson, T.O., and L. Narens. "Why Investigate Metacognition?" In Metacognition: Knowing About Knowing, edited by J. Metcalfe and A. P. Shimamura, 1-26. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1994.

Nestor, P.G., M.O. Kimble, B.F. O’Donnell, L. Smith, M. Niznikiewicz, M.E. Shenton, and R. W. McCarley. "Aberrant Semantic Activation in Schizophrenia: A Neurophysiological Study." American Journal of Psychiatry 154 (1997): 640-646.

Nihei, Y. "Effects of Pre-Activation of Motor Memory for Kanji and Kana on Slips of the Pen: An Experimental Verification of the Recency Hypothesis for Slips." Tohoku Psychologica Folia 47, no. 1-4 (1988): 1-7.

Norman, E. "Subcategories of "Fringe Consciousness" and Their Related Nonconscious Contexts." Psyche 8, no. 15 (2002).

Nothdurft, H-C. "Attention Shifts to Salient Targets." Vision Research 42 (2002): 1287-1306.

———. "Salience from Feature Contrast: Variations with Texture Density." Vision Research 40 (2000): 3181-3200.

Novick, L.R., and S.J. Sherman. "On the Nature of Insight Solutions: Evidence from Skill Differences in Anagram Solution." The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 56A, no. 2 (2003): 341-382.

Null, G.T. "Conditional Identity and Irregular Parts: Aron Gurwitsch's Gestalt-Theoretic Revision of the Stumpf-Husserl Conception of Independence." In To Work at the Foundations: Essays in Memory of Aron Gurwitsch, edited by J.C. Evans and R.S. Stufflebeam. New York, NY: Kluwer Academic Publications, 1997.

O'Craven, K.M., P.E. Downing, and N. Kanwisher. "Fmri Evidence for Objects as the Units of Attentional Selection." Nature 401 (1999): 584-587.

O'Regan, J.K., H. Deubel, J.J. Clark, and R.A. Rensink. "Picture Changes During Blinks: Looking without Seeing and Seeing without Looking." Visual Cognition 7 (2000): 191-212.

Overgaard, Morten. "The Role of Phenomenological Reports in Experiments on Consciousness." Psycoloquy 12, no. 29 (2001).

Palmer, S. E. Vision Science: Photons to Phenomenology. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1999.

Palmer, S. E., and I. Rock. "Rethinking Perceptual Organization: The Role of Uniform Connectedness." Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 1 (1994): 29-55.

Papafragou, A., C. Massey, and L. Gleitman. "Shake, Rattle, 'N' Roll: The Representation of Motion in Language and Cognition." Cognition 84 (2002): 189-219.

Pattee, H.H. "The Physics of Symbols and the Evolution of Semiotic Control." In Workshop on Control Mechanisms for Complex Systems: Issues of Measurement and Semiotic Analysis, Las Cruces, New Mexico, Dec. 8-12,1996. Redwood City, CA: Addison-Wesley, 1997.

Peirce, C.S. "The First Rule of Logic." In The Essential Peirce, edited by N. Houser, A. De Tienne, C. L. Clark, D. B. Davis, J. R. Eller and A. C. Lewis. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1998a.

———. "On the Logic of Drawing History from Ancient Documents, Especially from Testimonies." In The Essential Peirce: Selected Philosophical Writings, edited by N. Houser, A. De Tienne, J. R. Eller, C. L. Clark, A. C. Lewis and D. B. Davis, 75-114. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1998b.

Pessoa, L., E. Thompson, and A. Noë. "Finding out About Filling-In: A Guide to Perceptual Completion for Visual Science and the Philosophy of Perception." Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (1998): 723-802.

Peterson, M.A. "Object Perception." In Blackwell Handbook of Perception, edited by E.B. Goldstein, 168-203. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2000.

Peterson, M.A., and J.A. Kim. "On What Is Bound in Figures and Grounds." Visual Cognition 8, no. 3/4/5 (2001): 329-348.

Pexman, P.M., S.J. Lupker, and Y. Hino. "The Impact of Feedback Semantics in Visual Word Recognition: Number-of-Features Effects in Lexical Decision and Naming Tasks." Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 9, no. 3 (2002): 542-549.

Piaget, J. The Construction of Reality in the Child. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Ballantine Books, Inc., 1971.

Pietersma, H. "The Phenomenological Reduction: Some Remarks on Its Role in Philosophy." American Philosophical Quarterly 16, no. 1 (1979): 37-44.

Poldrack, R.A., J. Clark, E.J. Pare-Blagoev, D. Shohamy, J.C. Moyano, C. Myers, and M.A. Gluck. "Interactive Memory Systems in the Human Brain." Nature 414 (2001): 546-550.

Popper, K. R. The Logic of Scientific Discovery. Translated by K. R. Popper, J. Freed and L. Freed. English, 1958 ed. New York, NY: Harper & Row, 1968.

Posner, M.I. "Cumulative Development of Attentional Theory." American Psychologist 37, no. 2 (1982): 168-179.

Posner, M.I., and S.J. Boies. "Components of Attention." Psychological Review 78, no. 5 (1972): 391-408.

Price, M.C. Measuring the Fringes of Experience [html]. Psyche, October 2002 [accessed October 2002]. Available from http://psyche.cs.monash.edu.au/v8/psyche-8-16-price.html.

Quine, W. V. O. Theories and Things. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press, 1981.

Quintana, J., T. Wong, E. Ortiz-Portillo, E. Kovalik, T. Davidson, S.R. Marder, and J.C. Mazziotta. "Prefrontal-Posterior Parietal Networks in Schizophrenia: Primary Dysfunctions and Secondary Compensations." Biological Psychiatry 53 (2003): 12-24.

Rao, R.P.N., G.J. Zelinsky, M.M. Hayhoe, and D.H. Ballard. "Eye Movements in Iconic Visual Search." Vision Research 42 (2002): 1447-1463.

Raymond, J.E. "New Objects, Not New Features, Trigger the Attentional Blink." Psychological Science 14, no. 1 (2003): 54-59.

Reason, J.T. "Cognitive Underspecification: Its Variety and Consequences." In Experimental Slips and Human Error: Exploring the Architecture of Volition, edited by B. J. Baars, 71-91. New York, NY: Plenum Press, 1992.

Rensink, R.A. "Change Detection." Annual Review of Psychology 53 (2002): 245-277.

———. "The Dynamic Representation of Scenes." Visual Cognition 7, no. 1/2/3 (2000): 17-42.

Rhodes, M.G., and C.M. Kelley. "The Ring of Familiarity: False Familiarity Due to Rhyming Primes in Item and Associative Recognition." Journal of Memory and Language 48 (2003): 581-595.

Riefer, D.M. "Comparing Auditory Vs. Visual Stimuli in the Tip-of-the-Tongue Phenomenon." Psychological Reports 90 (2002): 568-576.

Rips, L.J. "The Current Status of Research on Concept Combination." Mind & Language 10, no. 1/2 (1995): 72-104.

———. "Necessity and Natural Categories." Psychological Bulletin 127, no. 6 (2001): 827-852.

Rizzolatti, G., L. Fadiga, V. Gallese, and L. Fogassi. "Premotor Cortex and the Recognition of Motor Actions." Cognitive Brain Research 3 (1996): 131-141.

Rock, I. "Cognitive Intervention in Perceptual Processing." In Approaches to Cognition: Contrasts and Controversies, edited by T.J. Knapp and L.C. Robertson, 189-221. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1986.

Roitman, S.E.L., B.A. Cornblatt, A. Bergman, M. Obuchowski, V. Mitropoulou, R.S.E. Keefe, J.M. Silverman, and L.J. Siever. "Attentional Functioning in Schizotypal Personality Disorder." American Journal of Psychiatry 154, no. 5 (1997): 655-660.

Romani, C., and R. Martin. "A Deficit in the Short-Term Retention of Lexical-Semantic Information: Forgetting Words but Remembering a Story." Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 128, no. 1 (1999): 56-77.

Rosch, E., C.B. Mervis, W.D. Gray, D.M. Johnson, and P. Boyes-Braem. "Basic Objects in Natural Categories." Cognitive Psychology 8, no. 3 (1976): 382-439.

Rosenblatt, F. Principles of Neurodynamics: Perceptrons and the Theory of Brain Mechanisms. Washington, D.C.: Spartan Books, 1962.

Rosenthal, D. "Consciousness, Interpretation, and Higher-Order Thought." In 3rd Annual International Symposium on Psychoanalysis as an Empirical, Interdisciplinary Science. Vienna, Austria, 2002.

———. "Metacognition and Higher-Order Thoughts." Consciousness and Cognition 9 (2000): 231-242.

Roy, J-M., J. Petitot, B. Pachoud, and F. J. Varela. "Beyond the Gap: An Introduction to Naturalizing Phenomenology." In Naturalizing Phenomenology: Issues in Contemporary Phenomenology and Cognitive Science, edited by J. Petitot, F. J. Varela, B. Pachoud and J-M. Roy. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1999.

Rozenblit, L., and F. Keil. "The Misunderstood Limits of Folk Science: An Illusion of Explanatory Depth." Cognitive Science 26 (2002): 521-562.

Sartre, J.P. The Transcendence of the Ego. 7th ed. New York, NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1957.

Schneider, W., and R. M. Shiffrin. "Controlled and Automatic Human Information Processing: I. Detection, Search, and Attention." Psychological Review 84, no. 1 (1977): 1-66.

Schroyens, W., W. Schaeken, and G. d'Ydewalle. "Error and Bias in Meta-Propositional Reasoning: A Case of the Mental Models Theory." Thinking and Reasoning 5, no. 1 (1999): 29-65.

Schroyens, W., F. Vitu, M. Brysbaert, and G. d'Ydewalle. "Eye Movement Control During Reading: Foveal Load and Parafoveal Processing." The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 52A, no. 4 (1999): 1021-1046.

Schwartz, B.L. "Illusory Tip-of-the-Tongue States." Memory 6, no. 6 (1998): 623-642.

———. "The Phenomenology of Naturally-Occurring Tip-of-the-Tongue States: A Diary Study." In Advances in Psychology Research, Volume 8, edited by S.P. Shohov, 73-84. Huntington, NY: Nova Science Publishers, 2002a.

———. "The Relation of Tip-of-the-Tongue States and Retrieval Time." Memory & Cognition 29, no. 1 (2001): 117-126.

———. "Sparkling at the End of the Tongue: The Etiology of Tip-of-the-Tongue Phenomenology." Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 6, no. 3 (1999): 379-393.

———. "The Strategic Control of Retrieval During Tip-of-the-Tongue States." The Korean Journal of Thinking & Problem Solving 12, no. 1 (2002b): 27-37.

———. Tip-of-the-Tongue States: Phenomenology, Mechanism, and Lexical Retrival. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2002c.

Schwartz, B.L., and S. M. Smith. "The Retrieval of Related Information Influences Tip-of-the-Tongue States." Journal of Memory and Language 36 (1997): 68-86.

Schwartz, B.L., D.M. Travis, A.M. Castro, and S. M. Smith. "The Phenomenology of Real and Illusory Tip-of-the-Tongue States." Memory & Cognition 28, no. 1 (2000): 18-27.

Schyns, P.G., R.L. Goldstone, and J-P. Thibaut. "The Development of Features in Object Concepts." Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (1998): 1-17.

Searle, J. R. "Consciousness, Free Action and the Brain." Journal of Consciousness Studies 7, no. 10 (2000): 3-22.

Seidler, M. J. "Philosophy as a Rigorous Science: An Introduction to Husserlian Phenomenology." Philosophy Today 21 (1977): 306-326.

Shalev, L., and D. Algom. "Stroop and Garner Effects in and out of Posner's Beam: Reconciling Two Conceptions of Selective Attention." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 26, no. 3 (2000): 997-1017.

Shedden, J.M., and G.S. Reid. "A Variable Mapping Task Produces Symmetrical Interference between Global Information and Local Information." Perception & Psychophysics 63, no. 2 (2001): 241-252.

Shepard, R. "Attention and the Metric Structure of the Stimulus Space." Journal of Mathematical Psychology 1 (1964): 54-87.

———. "Cognitive Psychology and Music." In Music, Cognition, and Computerized Sound: An Introduction to Psychoacoustics, edited by P.R. Cook. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1999.

Shevrin, H., J.H. Ghannam, and B. Libet. "Response to Commentary on "a Neural Correlate of Consciousness Related to Repression"." Consciousness and Cognition 11, no. 2 (2002): 345-346.

Shiffrin, R. M., and W. Schneider. "Automatic and Controlled Processing Revisited." Psychological Review 91, no. 2 (1984): 269-276.

Shipley, T.F., and P.J. Kellman. "Perception of Partly Occluded Objects and Illusory Figures: Evidence for an Identity Hypothesis." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 18 (1992): 106-120.

Siewert, C.P. The Significance of Consciousness. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1998.

Simon, D., and K.J. Holyoak. "Structural Dynamics of Cognition: From Consistency Theories to Constraint Satisfaction." Personality and Social Psychology Review 6, no. 6 (2003): 283-294.

Sloman, S. A., and W.K. Ahn. "Feature Centrality: Naming Versus Imagining." Memory & Cognition 27, no. 3 (1999): 526-537.

Sloman, S. A., B.C. Love, and W.K. Ahn. "Feature Centrality and Conceptual Coherence." Cognitive Science 22, no. 2 (1998): 189-228.

Sloman, S. A., and B.C. Malt. "Artifacts Are Not Ascribed Essences, nor Are They Treated as Belonging to Kinds." (in press) Language and Cognitive Processes (2003).

Smith, B. "In Defense of Extreme (Fallibilistic) Apriorism." Journal of Libertarian Studies 12 (1996): 179-192.

Smith, E.E., and S.A. Sloman. "Similarity Versus Rule-Based Categorization." Memory & Cognition 22 (1994): 377-386.

Smith, S. M., S.P. Balfour, and J.M. Brown. "Effects of Practice on Tip-of-the-Tongue States." Memory 2, no. 1 (1994): 31-49.

Smith, S. M., J.M. Brown, and S.P. Balfour. "Totimals: A Controlled Experimental Method for Studying Tip-of-the-Tongue States." Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 29, no. 5 (1991): 445-447.

Sokolowski, R. "Immanent Constitution in Husserl's Lectures on Time." Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 24 (1964): 530-551.

Spader, P. "Phenomenology and the Claiming of Essential Knowledge." Husserl Studies 11 (1995): 169-199.

Spalding, T.L., and B.H. Ross. "Concept Learning and Feature Interpretation." Memory & Cognition 28, no. 3 (2000): 439-451.

Standing, L., J. Conezio, and R.N. Haber. "Perception and Memory for Pictures: Single-Trial Learning of 2500 Visual Stimuli." Psychonomic Science 19 (1970): 73-74.

Stumpf, C. Tonpsychologie. Leipzig: S. Hirzel, 1890.

Sweetser, E. "Blended Spaces and Performativity." Cognitive Linguistics 11, no. 3/4 (2000): 305-333.

Tarski, A. Logic, Semantics, Metamathematics. Translated by J.H. Woodger. London, England: Oxford University Press, 1956.

Tata, M.S. "Attend to It Now or Lose It Forever: Selective Attention, Metacontrast Masking, and Object Substitution." Perception and Psychophysics 64, no. 7 (2002): 1028-1038.

Terhardt, E. "Gestalt Principles and Music Perception." In Auditory Processing of Complex Sounds, edited by W.A. Yost and C.S. Watson. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., 1987.

Theeuwes, J., and R. Godijn. "Irrelevant Singletons Capture Attention: Evidence from Inhibition of Return." Perception & Psychophysics 64, no. 5 (2002): 764-770.

Thibaut, J-P., M. Dupont, and P. Anselme. "Dissociations between Categorization and Similarity Judgments as a Result of Learning Feature Distributions." Memory & Cognition 30, no. 4 (2002): 647-656.

Tipper, S.P., S. Grison, and K. Kessler. "Long-Term Inhibition of Return of Attention." Psychological Science 14, no. 1 (2003): 19-25.

Titchener, E. B. Experimental Psychology: A Manual of Laboratory Practice. Volume I: Qualitative Experiments, Part 2. Instructor's Manual. NY: Macmillan, 1901.

Toadvine, T. "Phenomenological Method in Merleau-Ponty's Critique of Gurwitsch." Husserl Studies 17, no. 3 (2001): 195-205.

Toulmin, S. The Philosophy of Science: An Introduction. New York, NY: Harper & Row, 1960.

Trehub, A. The Cognitive Brain. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1991.

Treisman, A. "Focused Attention in the Perception and Retrieval of Multidimensional Stimuli." Perception & Psychophysics 22, no. 1 (1977): 1-11.

———. "The Perception of Features and Objects." In Attention: Selection, Awareness, and Control: A Tribute to Donald B. Broadbent, edited by A. Baddeley and L. Weiskrantz. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press, 1993.

Treisman, A., and S. Gormican. "Feature Analysis in Early Vision: Evidence from Search Asymmetries." Psychological Review 95, no. 1 (1988): 15-48.

Treisman, A.M., and G. Gelade. "A Feature-Integration Theory of Attention." Cognitive Psychology 12 (1980): 97-136.

Tsur, R. "Metaphor and Figure-Ground Relationship: Comparisons from Poetry, Music, and the Visual Arts." PsyART: A Hyperlink Journal for Psychological Study of the Arts 4 (2000).

Tulving, E. "Memory: Performance, Knowledge, and Experience." European Journal of Cognitive Psychology 1, no. 1 (1989): 3-26.

Turner, M. The Literary Mind. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Tyler, L.K., and H.E. Moss. "Towards a Distributed Account of Conceptual Knowledge." Trends in Cognitive Sciences 5, no. 6 (2001): 244-252.

VanRullen, R., and S.J. Thorpe. "The Time Course of Visual Processing: From Early Perception to Decision-Making." Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 13, no. 4 (2001): 454-461.

Veale, T., and M. T. Keane. "Conceptual Scaffolding: A Spatially Founded Meaning Representation for Metaphor Comprehension." Computational Intelligence 8, no. 3 (1992): 494-519.

Veale, T., and D. O'Donoghue. "Computation and Blending." Cognitive Linguistics 11, no. 3/4 (2000): 253-281.

Vecera, S.P., M. Behrmann, and J.C. Filapek. "Attending to the Parts of a Single Object: Part-Based Selection Limitations." Perception & Psychophysics 63, no. 2 (2001): 308-321.

Vigliocco, G., D.P. Vinson, R.C. Martin, and M. F. Garrett. "Is "Count" and "Mass" Information Available When the Noun Is Not? An Investigation of Tip of the Tongue States and Anomia." Journal of Memory and Language 40 (1999): 534-558.

von Ehrenfels, C. "Über Gestaltqualitäten." Viertaljahrsschrift für wissenschaftliche philosophie 14 (1890): 259 ff.

von Meinong, A. "Über Gegenstände Höherer Ordnung and Deren Verhältnis Zur Inneren Wahrnehmung." Zeitschrift für Psychologie 21 (1899).

Ward, R., S. Goodrich, and J. Driver. "Grouping Reduces Visual Extinction: Neuropsychological Evidence for Weight-Linkage in Visual Selection." Visual Cognition 1 (1994): 101-130.

Washington, C., and J. Biro. "A Logically Transparent Approach to Discourse Reporting." Mind & Language 16, no. 2 (2001): 146-172.

Watson, S.E., and A.F. Kramer. "Object-Based Visual Selective Attention and Perceptual Organization." Perception & Psychophysics 61, no. 1 (1999): 31-49.

Weekes, B.S., and G. Robinson. "Senantic Anomia without Surface Dyslexia." Aphasiology 11, no. 8 (1997): 813-825.

Wegner, D. M., and J. A. Bargh. "Control and Automaticity in Social Life." edited by D. Gilbert, S. T. Fiske and G. Landzey. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill, 1996.

Wellman, H.M. "Tip of the Tongue and Feeling of Knowing Experiences: A Developmental Study of Memory Monitoring." Child Development 48 (1977): 13-21.

Westmacott, R., and M. Moscovitch. "Names and Words without Meaning: Incidental Postmorbid Semantic Learning in a Person with Extensive Bilateral Medial Temporal Damage." Neuropsychology 15, no. 4 (2001): 586-596.

Wheeler, R.H. "Theories of the Will and Kinesthetic Sensations." Psychological Review 27 (1920): 351-360.

Whittlesea, B.W.A., and L.D. Williams. "The Discrepancy-Attribution Hypothesis: Ii. Expectation, Uncertainty, Surprise, and Feelings of Familiarity." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition 27, no. 1 (2001): 14-33.

———. "The Source of Feelings of Familiarity: The Discrepancy-Attribution Hypothesis." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 26, no. 3 (2000): 547-565.

Widner, R.L., Jr., S. M. Smith, and W.G. Graziano. "The Effects of Demand Characteristics on the Reporting of Tip-of-the-Tongue and Feeling-of-Knowing States." The American Journal of Psychology 109, no. 4 (1996): 525-538.

Wilson, M.W. "The Case for Sensorimotor Coding in Working Memory." Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 8, no. 1 (2001): 44-57.

Wittgenstein, L. Remarks on the Philosophy of Psychology, Vol. 2. Translated by G. E. M. Anscombe. Edited by G. E. M. Anscombe and G. H. von Wright. Vol. II. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press, 1988.

Wundt, W.M. System Der Philosophie, Von Wilhelm Wundt. Leipzig, Germany: W. Engelmann, 1889.

Yamada, J., and H. Takashima. "The Semantic Effect on Retrival of Radicals in Logographic Characters." Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal 14 (2001): 179-194.

Yaniv, I., and D.E. Meyer. "Activation and Metacognition of Inaccessible Stored Information: Potential Bases for Incubation Effects in Problem Solving." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition 13, no. 2 (1987): 187-205.

Zahavi, D. "Constitution and Ontology: Some Remarks on Husserl's Ontological Position in the Logical Investigations." Husserl Studies 9 (1992): 111-124.

Zelazo, P.D. "Language, Levels of Consciousness, and the Development of Intentional Action." In Developing Theories of Intention: Social Understanding and Self-Control, edited by P.D. Zelazo, J.W. Ostington and D.R. Olson, 95-117, 1999.

Zimmer, H.D., T. Helstrup, and J. Engelkamp. "Pop-out into Memory: A Retrieval Mechanism That Is Enhanced with the Recall of Subject-Performed Tasks." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 26, no. 3 (2000): 658-670.

Metadata

Repository Staff Only: item control page