Cogprints

Simulating activities: Relating motives, deliberation, and attentive coordination

Clancey, William J. (2002) Simulating activities: Relating motives, deliberation, and attentive coordination. [Journal (Paginated)]

Full text available as:

[img]
Preview
PDF
207Kb

Abstract

Activities are located behaviors, taking time, conceived as socially meaningful, and usually involving interaction with tools and the environment. In modeling human cognition as a form of problem solving (goal-directed search and operator sequencing), cognitive science researchers have not adequately studied “off-task” activities (e.g., waiting), non-intellectual motives (e.g., hunger), sustaining a goal state (e.g., playful interaction), and coupled perceptual-motor dynamics (e.g., following someone). These aspects of human behavior have been considered in bits and pieces in past research, identified as scripts, human factors, behavior settings, ensemble, flow experience, and situated action. More broadly, activity theory provides a comprehensive framework relating motives, goals, and operations. This paper ties these ideas together, using examples from work life in a Canadian High Arctic research station. The emphasis is on simulating human behavior as it naturally occurs, such that “working” is understood as an aspect of living. The result is a synthesis of previously unrelated analytic perspectives and a broader appreciation of the nature of human cognition. Simulating activities in this comprehensive way is useful for understanding work practice, promoting learning, and designing better tools, including human-robot systems.

Item Type:Journal (Paginated)
Additional Information:This paper brings together ten years of work on modeling work practice, discussing the theoretical relation of the Brahms simulation tool to activity theory and cognitive task analysis.
Keywords:activity theory, situated cognition, behavior simulation, task analysis, problem solving models
Subjects:Psychology > Applied Cognitive Psychology
ID Code:2999
Deposited By:Clancey, Bill
Deposited On:03 Jun 2003
Last Modified:11 Mar 2011 08:55

References in Article

Select the SEEK icon to attempt to find the referenced article. If it does not appear to be in cogprints you will be forwarded to the paracite service. Poorly formated references will probably not work.

Agre, P. E., and Chapman, D. 1987. Pengi: An implementation of a theory of activity. Sixth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence. San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufmann. pp. 268-272.

Bamberger, J. 1991. The mind behind the musical ear. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Bagnara, S. Zuccermaglio, C. and Stucky, S. (Eds.) 1995. Organizational learning and technological change (Papers from the NATO Workshop, Siena, Italy, September 22-26, 1992.). Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Barker, R. G. 1968. Ecological psychology: Concepts and methods for studying the environment of human behavior. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Bartlett, F. C. [1932] 1977. Remembering: A study in experimental and social psychology(Reprint ed). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bickhard, M. H., and Terveen, L. 1995. Foundational issues in artificial intelligence and cognitive science: Impasse and solution. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers.

Brooks, R. 1991. How to build complete creatures rather than isolated cognitive simulators. In K. VanLehn (Ed.), Architectures for intelligence, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. pp. 225-239.

Brown, J. S. and Duguid, P. 2000. The social life of information. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

Burton, R. R. and Brown, J. S. 1992. An investigation of computer coaching for informal learning activities. In D. Sleeman and J. S. Brown (Eds.), Intelligent tutoring systems. London: Academic Press, pp. 79-98.

Chi, M. T. H., Glaser, R., and Farr, M. J. 1988. The nature of expertise. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Clancey, W. J. 1992. Model construction operators. Artificial Intelligence, 53(1), 1-124.

Clancey, W. J. 1993. Situated action: A neuropsychological interpretation (Response to Vera and Simon). Cognitive Science, 17(1), 87-107.

Clancey, W. J. 1994. Comment on diSessa. Cognition and Instruction 12(2), 97-102.

Clancey, W. J. 1995. Practice cannot be reduced to theory: Knowledge, representations, and change in the workplace. In S. Bagnara, C. Zuccermaglio, and S. Stucky (Eds.),Organizational learning and technological change (Papers from the NATO Workshop, Siena, Italy, September 22-26, 1992.), Berlin: Springer-Verlag. pp. 16-46.

Clancey, W. J. 1997a. Situated cognition: On human knowledge and computer representations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Clancey, W. J. 1997b. The conceptual nature of knowledge, situations, and activity. In P. Feltovich, R. Hoffman, & K. Ford (Eds.), Expertise in Context, Menlo Park, CA: The AAAI Press. pp. 247–291.

Clancey, W. J. 1998. Developing learning technology in practice. In C. Bloom & R. B. Loftin (Eds.), Facilitating the development and use of interactive learning environments, pp 3-20. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Clancey, W. J. 1999a. Studying the varieties of consciousness: Stories about zombies or the life about us? Journal of the Learning Sciences, 8 (3 & 4), 525-540.

Clancey, W. J. 1999b. Conceptual coordination: How the mind orders experience in time. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum Associates.

Clancey, W. J. 2001a. Conceptual coordination bridges information processing and neurophysiology. Behavioral and Brain Science, 23(6), 919-922. Special issue on Sleep and Dreaming.

Clancey, W. J. 2001b. Field science ethnography: Methods for systematic observation on an Arctic expedition. Field Methods, 13(3), 223-243, August.

Clancey, W. J. 2001c. Is abstraction a kind of idea or how conceptualization works? Cognitive Science Quarterly 1(3-4), 389-421. Special issue on abstraction.

Clancey, W. J. (in preparation). Modeling the perceptual component of conceptual learning—a coordination perspective. In Petter Johansson (ed.), Cognition, education, and communication technology, Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum Associates.

Clancey, W. J., Sachs, P., Sierhuis, M., and van Hoof, R. 1998. Brahms: Simulating practice for work systems design. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 49: 831-865.

Cohen, P. R., Greenberg, M. L., Hart, D. M., & Howe, A. E. (1989). Trial by fire: Understanding the design requirements for agents in complex environments. AI Magazine 10(3), 34-48.

Corbett, J. M., Rasmussen, L.B., and Rauner, F. 1991. Crossing the border: The social and engineering design of computer integrated manufacturing systems. Artificial Intelligence and Society Series. Great Britain: Springer-Verlag.

Csikszentmihalyi, M. and Csikszentmihalyi, I. S. (Eds.) 1988. Optimal experience: Psychological studies in flow in consciousness. Cambridge: CUP.

Damasio, A. 1994. Descartes’ error: Emotion, reason, and the human brain. New York: Putnam.

Damasio, A. 1999. The feeling of what happens: Body and emotion in the making of consciousness. New York: Harcourt Brace and Company.

Darden, L. 1997. Recent work in computational scientific discovery. In Proceedings of the Nineteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, Michael Shafto and Pat Langley (Eds.), Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum, pp. 161-166.

Davis, E. 1992. Plans and goals. In S.C. Shapiro. (editor-in-chief), Encyclopedia of Artificial Intelligence, Second Ed. 1992. New York: John Wiley, pp. 1292-1294.

Dewey, J. 1938. Logic: The theory of Inquiry. New York: Henry Holt & Company.

Dietrich, E. and Markman, A. B. 2000. Cognitive dynamics: Conceptual and representational change in humans and machines. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Dyer, M. G., Cullingford, R. E., and Alvarado, S.J 1992. Scripts. In S.C. Shapiro. (editor-in-chief), Encyclopedia of Artificial Intelligence, Second Ed. 1992. New York: John Wiley, pp. 1443-1460.

Eckert, P. 1989. Jocks and burnouts: Social categories and identity in the high school. New York: Teachers College Press.

Edelman, G. 1992. Bright air, brilliant fire: On the matter of the mind. New York: Basic Books.

Freud, S. 1923. The ego and the id. New York: W.H. Norton.

Gardner, H. 1985. Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New York: Basic Books.

Gasser, L. 1991. Social conceptions of knowledge and action, Artificial Intelligence, 47(1-3)107-138., January.

Goffman, E. 1974. Frame analysis. New York: Harper and Row

Greenbaum, J., and Kyng, M. (Eds.) 1991. Design at work: Cooperative design of computer systems. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Greeno, J. G. 1997. On claims that answer the wrong questions. Educational Researcher, 26, 5-17.

Hutchins, E. 1995. Cognition in the wild. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Iran-Nejad, A. 1990. Active and dynamic self-regulation of learning processes. Review of Educational Research, 60(4, Winter): 573-602.

Kagan, J. 1994. Galen’s prophecy: Temperament in human nature. New York: Basic Books.

Kantowitz, B. H. and Sorkin, R. D. 1983. Human factors: Understanding people-system relationships. New York: John Wiley.

Lave, J. 1988. Cognition in practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lave, J., Murtaugh, M., and de la Rocha, O. 1984. The dialectic of arithmetic in grocery shopping. In B. Rogoff and J. Lave (editors), Everyday cognition, Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, pp. 67-94.

Lave, J. 1991. Situated learning in communities of practice. In L.B. Resnick, J. M. Levine, and S. D. Teasley (editors), Perspectives on socially shared cognition. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association, pp 63-82.

Lave J. and Wenger, E. 1981. Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge: CUP.

Leont’ev A. N. 1979. The problem of activity in psychology. In Wertsch, J. V. (editor), The concept of activity in soviet psychology. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe. pp. 37-71.

Luff, P. Hindmarsh, J., and Heath, C. 2000. Workplace studies: Recovering work practice and informing system design. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lyons, D. M. and Hendriks, A. J. 1992 Reactive planning. In S.C. Shapiro. (editor-in-chief), Encyclopedia of Artificial Intelligence, Second Ed. 1992. New York: John Wiley. pp. 1171-1181.

Maida, A. S. 1992. Frame theory. In S.C. Shapiro. (editor-in-chief), Encyclopedia of Artificial Intelligence, Second Ed. 1992. New York: John Wiley. pp 493-507.

Massimini, F., C., Csikszentmihalyi, M., and Delle Fave, A. 1988. Flow and biocultural evolution. In M. Csikszentmihalyi and I. S. Csikszentmihalyi (editors), Optimal experience: Psychological studies in flow in consciousness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 60-81.

Maue, K. 1979. Water in the Lake: Real events for the imagination. New York: Harper and Row.

Nakashima, H., Noda, I., and Handa, K. (1996). Organic programming language GAEA for multi-agents. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Multi-Agent Systems. December 10-13, 1996, Kyoto, Japan. Menlo Park: AAAI Press. pp. 236-243.

Nardi, B. 1996. Context and consciousness: Activity theory and human-computer interaction. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Newell, A., and Simon, H. A. 1972. Human problem solving. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Newell, A. (1990). Unified theories of cognition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Ortony, A. 1992. Emotion modeling. In S.C. Shapiro. (editor-in-chief), Encyclopedia of Artificial Intelligence, Second Ed. 1992. New York: John Wiley. pp. 446-448.

Papert, S. 1980. Mindstorms. New York: Basic Books.

Resnick, L. B., Levine, J. M., and Teasley, S. D. (editors)1991. Perspectives on socially shared cognition. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.

Rosenbloom, P. S., Newell, A., Laird, J. E. (1991). Toward the knowledge level in Soar: The role of the architecture in the use of knowledge, Architectures for Intelligence: The Twenty-second Carnegie Mellon Symposium on Cognition, Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. pp. 75-111.

Schank, R. and Abelson, R. P. 1977. Scripts, plans, goals and understanding. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Sacks, O. 1987. The man who mistook his wife for a hat. New York: Harper & Row.

Schank, R. C. (1982). Dynamic memory: A theory of reminding and learning in computers and people. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Schön, D. A. 1979. Generative metaphor: A perspective on problem-setting in social polity. In A. Ortony (Ed.) Metaphor and Thought, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 254-283.

Schön, D. 1987. Educating the reflective practitioner. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Sierhuis, M. 2001. Modeling and simulating work practice. Ph.D. thesis, Social Science and Informatics (SWI), University of Amsterdam, SIKS Dissertation Series No. 2001-10, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, ISBN 90-6464-849-2.

Steels, L., and Brooks, R. (Eds.). 1995. The "artificial life" route to "artificial intelligence": Building situated embodied agents. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Suchman, L. A. 1987. Plans and situated actions: The problem of human-machine communication. Cambridge: Cambridge Press.

Tambe, M, Johnson, W.L., Jones, R.M., Laird, J.E., Rosenbloom, P.S., and Schwamb, K. (1995). Intelligent agents for interactive simulation environments. AI Magazine, 16(1):15-39,Spring.

Vera, A. and Simon, H. 1993. Response to comments by Clancey on "Situated action: A symbolic interpretation. Cognitive Science, 17(1), 117-133.

Vincente, K. J. 1999. Cognitive Work Analysis: Toward safe, productive, and healthy computer-based work. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Wenger, E. 1998. Communities of practice: Learning, meaning, and identity. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Wertsch, J. V. (Ed.) 1979. The concept of activity in soviet psychology. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe.

Wertsch, J. V. 1985. Vygotsky and the social formation of mind. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Wilensky, R. 1983. Planning and Understanding: A Computational Approach to Human Reasoning. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Winograd, T. & Flores, F. 1986. Understanding Computers and Cognition: A New Foundation for Design. Norwood: Ablex.

Wynn, E. 1991. Taking practice seriously. In J. Greenbaum and M. Kyng (Eds.), Design at work: Cooperative design of computer systems. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 45-64.

Zhang, J. 1997. The nature of external representations in problem solving. Cognitive Science, 21(2), 179-217.

Zinchenko, V. P. and Gordon, V. M. 1979. Methodological problems in the psychological analysis of activity. In Wertsch, J. V. (Ed.), The concept of activity in soviet psychology. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe. pp. 72-133.

Metadata

Repository Staff Only: item control page