Have brain dynamics evolved? Should we look for unique dynamics in the sapient species?

Bullock, T.H. (2002) Have brain dynamics evolved? Should we look for unique dynamics in the sapient species? (In Press)


There is a more recent version of this eprint available. Click here to view it.

Full text available as:



Ongoing "spontaneous" electrical field potentials of assemblies of neurons in the brains of diverse animal groups differ widely in character and amplitude without obvious explanation. There may be correlates with other measures of brain complexity, such as histological differentiation but there are so far no known differences between the EEG s of humans and other mammals or between mammals and reptiles, amphibians or fish, apart from amplitude. The proposition is defended that further search for descriptors or statistical, probably non-linear features of the time series will reveal consistent differences - meaning that we have so far missed major features of the natural history of EEGs, just as we have, thus far, relatively neglected the identification of features of the physiology of the brain relevant to its evolution of complexity through major grades of phyla, classes and orders.

Item Type:Other
Additional Information:Based on paper for Brain Dynamics Workshop, May 10-12, 2002, Rancho Santa Fe, CA. "From Microscopic to Macroscopic Brain Dynamics" organized by T. Sejnowski
Keywords:evolution, phyla, EEG, electrical, field, potentials, Neuroscience, Neurobiology, Brain Dynamics Workshop
Subjects:Neuroscience > Neurology
Biology > Evolution
Biology > Behavioral Biology
Neuroscience > Neurophysiology
Neuroscience > Neuroanatomy
Biology > Animal Behavior
ID Code:2665
Deposited By:Bullock, Theodore Holmes
Deposited On:18 Dec 2002
Last Modified:11 Mar 2011 08:55

Available Versions of this Item

References in Article

Select the SEEK icon to attempt to find the referenced article. If it does not appear to be in cogprints you will be forwarded to the paracite service. Poorly formated references will probably not work.

Arouz,R, C M Gray, 1999, Cellular mechanisms contributing to response variability of cortical neurons in vivo: Journal of Neuroscience, 19, 2209-2223.

Barlow,H, 1996, Intraneuronal information processing, directional selectivity and memory for spatio-temporal sequences: Comp.Neural Systems, 7, 251-259.

Barrio,LC, W Buño, 1990, Dynamic analysis of sensory-inhibitory interactions in crayfish stretch receptor neurons: J.Neurophysiol., 63, 1508-1519.

Baar,E, 1983, Toward a physical approach to integrative physiology. I. Brain dynamics and physical causality: Am.J.Physiol., 245, R510-R533.

Baar, E. 1999. Dynamics of potentials from invertebrate brain. In Brain Functions and Oscillations. II: Integrative Brain Function. Neurophysiology and Cognitive Processes. E. Baar, ed. Springer, Berlin, pp 91-108

Baar E, Schütt A, Bullock TH (1999) Dynamics of potentials from the brain of anamniotes. In Brain Functions and Oscillations. II: Integrative Brain Function. Neurophysiology and Cognitive Processes. E. Baar, ed. Springer, Berlin, pp 109-116

Bennett,MVL, 1968, Similarities between chemically and electrically mediated transmission, in FD Carlson (ed), Physiological and Biochemical Aspects of Nervous Integration: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice-Hall, p. 73-128.

Bernander, R J Douglas, K A C Martin, C Koch, 1991, Synaptic background activity influences spatiotemporal integration in single pyramidal cells: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, v. 88, p. 11569-11573.

Boorman,G, U Windhorst, D Kirmayer, 1994, Waveform parameters of recurrent inhibitory postsynaptic potentials in cat motoneurons during time-varying activation patterns: Neuroscience, 63, 747-756.

Borst,A, M Egelhaaf, J Haag, 1995, Mechanisms of dendritic integration underlying gain control in fly motion-sensitive interneurons: J.Computat.Neurosci., 2, 5-18.

Bullock,TH. 1942. Alteration of frequency of pacemaker nerve cells by imposed direct current. Anat.Rec. 84, 18-19.

Bullock,TH, 1946, A preparation for the physiological study of the unit synapse: Nature, v. 158, p. 555-556.

Bullock,TH. 1948. Non-integrative synapses. Biol.Bull. 95, 249.

Bullock,TH, 1951a, Facilitation of conduction rate in nerve fibers: J.Physiol., v. 114, p. 89-97.

Bullock,TH, 1951b, Conduction and transmission of nerve impulses: Annu.Rev.Physiol., v. 13, p. 261-280.

Bullock,TH, 1952, The invertebrate neuron junction: Cold Spring Harbor Symposia of Quantitative Biology, v. 17, p. 267-273.

Bullock,TH, 1952, Electrical similarities and differences between synaptic transmission and axonal conduction, Nerve Impulse: New York, Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation.

Bullock,TH. 1953. Contribution from studies of diverse response mechanisms in animals. J.Nat.Cancer Inst. 13, 1385.

Bullock,TH, 1957, Neuronal integrative mechanisms, in BT Scheer (ed), Recent Advances in Invertebrate Physiology: Eugene, University of Oregon Press, p. 1-20.

Bullock,TH, 1958a, Parameters of integrative action of the nervous system at the neuronal level: Exp.Cell Res., v. (Suppl. 5), p. 323-337.

Bullock,TH, 1958b, Evolution of neurophysiological mechanisms, in GG Simpson and A Roe (eds), Behavior and Evolution: New Haven, Yale University Press, p. 165-177.

Bullock,TH, 1959a, Neuron doctrine and electrophysiology: Science, v. 129, p. 997-1002.

Bullock,TH, 1959b, Initiation of nerve impulses in receptor and central neurons: Rev.Mod.Physics, 31, 504-514.

Bullock,TH, 1962, How can nerve cells handle information?: Kagaku, v. 32, p. 594-599.

Bullock,TH, 1964, Transfer functions at synaptic junctions, in RW Gerard (ed), Information Processing in the Nervous System: New York, Excerpta Medica Foundation, p. 98-108.

Bullock,TH, 1965, Mechanisms of integration, in Structure and Function in the Nervous Systems of Invertebrates: T.H. Bullock and G.A. Horridge, eds., New York, W.H. Freeman & Co., p. 253-351.

Bullock,TH, 1966, Integrative properties of neural tissue, in RW Russell (ed), Frontiers in Physiological Psychology: New York, Academic Press, p. 5-20.

Bullock,TH, 1968, Representation of information in neurons and sites for molecular participation: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, v. 60, p. 1058-1068.

Bullock,TH, 1971, Neurons as biological transducers and communication channels, in EF Beckenbach and CB Thompkins (eds), Concepts of Communication: Interpersonal, Intrapersonal and Mathematical: New York, John Wiley & Sons, p. 119-153.

Bullock,TH, 1976, In search of principles in neural integration, in JC Fentress (ed), Simpler Networks and Behavior: Sunderland, MA, Sinauer Assoc., p. 52-60.

Bullock,TH, 1977, Some perspectives on comparative neurophysiology, in G Hoyle (ed), Identified Neurons and Behavior of Arthropods: New York, Plenum Press, p. 533-588.

Bullock,TH, with the collaboration of, R Orkand, A D Grinnell, 1977, Introduction to Nervous Systems, San Francisco, W.H. Freeman and Company, p. 1-559.

Bullock,TH. 1979. Communication among neurons includes new permutations of molecular, electrical, and mechanical factors. Behav.Brain Sci. 2, 419.

Bullock,TH, 1980, Reassessment of neural connectivity and its specification, in HM Pinsker and WD Willis, Jr. (eds), Information Processing in the Nervous System: New York, Raven Press, p. 199-220.

Bullock,TH, 1981a, Coding and integration in receptors and central afferent systems: principles illustrated by electroreception and other modalities in lower vertebrates, in MS Laverack and DJ Cosens (eds), Sense Organs: Glasgow, Blackie and Son, Ltd., pp. 366-380.

Bullock,TH, 1981b, Spikeless neurones: where do we go from here?, in A Roberts and BMH Bush (eds), Neurones Without Impulses: Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, p. 269-284.

Bullock,TH, 1984, A framework for considering basic levels of neural integration, in F Reinoso-Suarez and C Ajmone-Marsan (eds), Cortical Integration: Basic, Archicortical and Association Levels of Integration: New York, Raven Press, p. 27-36.

Bullock,TH, 1986, 'Simple' model systems need comparative studies: differences are as important as commonalities: Trends in Neurosciences, v. 9, p. 470-472.

Bullock TH 1992. Comparisons of major and minor taxa reveal two kinds of differences: "lateral" adaptations and "vertical" changes in grade. In The Evolutionary Biology of Hearing, DB Webster, RR Fay and AN Popper, eds. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp 15-19

BullockTH 1993, How do brains work? Birkhäuser, Springer, Boston, New York, p. 127

Bullock TH. 1995. Are the main grades of brains different principally in numbers of connections or also in quality? In The Nervous Systems of Invertebrates: An Evolutionary and Comparative Approach. O Breidbach, W Kutsch, eds. Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel/Switzerland, pp 439-44

Bullock, TH. 2000a. Revisiting the concept of identifiable neurons. Brain Behav. Evol. 50:236-240.

Bullock TH. 2000b. Introduction (Proc of the Workshop on Gamma Activity in the Human EEG, 13 March 1999, C Herrmann, ed. ). Int J Psychophysiol

Bullock,TH, G A Horridge, 1965, Structure and Function in the Nervous Systems of Invertebrates, San Francisco, W.H. Freeman and Company, p. 1-1610.

Bullock TH, Achimowicz JZ, Duckrow RB, Spencer SS, Iragui-Madoz VJ (1996) Bicoherence of intracranial EEG. Proc 3rd Joint Symp on Neural Computation, University of California, San Diego 6:83-87

Bullock TH, Achimowicz JZ, Duckrow RB, Spencer SS, Iragui-Madoz VJ (1998a) Bicoherence of intracranial EEG in sleep, wakefulness and seizures. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 103:661-678

Bullock TH, Enright JT, Chong KM (1998) Forays with the additive periodogram applied to the EEG. It gives a different picture of brain rhythms from the power spectrum. Proc Fifth Joint Symp on Neural Computation, University of California, San Diego 8:25-28

Bullock TH, McClune MC, Achimowicz JZ, Iragui-Madoz VJ, Duckrow RB, Spencer SS (1995a) Temporal fluctuations in coherence of brain waves. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92:11568-11572

Bullock TH, McClune MC, Achimowicz JZ, Iragui-Madoz VJ, Duckrow RB, Spencer SS (1995b) EEG coherence has structure in the millimeter domain: subdural and hippocampal recordings from epileptic patients. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 95:161-177

Bullock,TH, C A Terzuolo, 1957, Diverse forms of activity in the somata of spontaneous and integrating ganglion cells: J.Physiol., 138, 341-364.

Bullock,TH, R S Turner, 1950, Events associated with conduction failure in nerve fibers: Journal of Cellular and Comparative Physiology, v. 36, p. 59-81.

Buño,W, Jr., L C Barrio, 1990, Inhibitory synaptic modulation of sensory input: example from an isolated mechanosensory neuron: Ergebn.Exp.Med., 51, 173-184.

Burrows,M, 1975, Integration by motoneurones in the central nervous system of insects, in PNR Usherwood and DR Newth (eds), 'Simple' Nervous Systems: Edward Arnold, p. 345-379.

Burrows,M, 1978, Local interneurones and integration in locust ganglia: Verh.Dtsch.Zool.Ges., 1978, 68-79.

Buzsáki,G, A Kandel, 1998, Somadendritic backpropagation of action potentials in cortical pyramidal cells of the awake cat: J.Neurophysiol., 79, 1587-1591.

Chernetski,KE, 1964, Sympathetic enhancement of peripheral sensory input in the frog: J.Neurophysiol., 27, 493-515.

Changeux, J.-P. 1985 Neuronal Man.The Biology of Mind. Translated by Laurence. Gary. Pantheon Books, New York.

Debanne,D, N C Guérineau, B H Gähwiler, S M Thompson, 1997, Action-potential propagation gated by an axonal Ia-like K+ conductance in hippocampus: Nature, 389, 286.

Delmas,P, M Raggenbass, M Gola, 1997, Low-threshold Na+ currents: a new family of receptor-operated inward currents in mammalian nerve cells: Brain Res.Rev., 25, 246-254.

Ehret,G, 1988, Frequency resolution, spectral filtering, and integration on the neuronal level, in GM Edelman, WE Gall, and WM Cowan (eds), Auditory Function: New York, John Wiley & Sons, p. 363-384.

Engel,AK, P König, A K Kreiter, T B Schillen, W Singer, 1992, Temporal coding in the visual cortex: new vistas on integration in the nervous system: Trends in Neurosciences, 15, 218-226.

Fain,GL, 1981, Integration by spikeless neurones in the retina, in A Roberts and BMH Bush (eds), Neurones Without Impulses: Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, p. 29-59.

Gerstner,W, A K Kreiter, H Markram, A V M Herz, 1997, Neural codes: firing rates and beyond: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 94, 12740-12741.

Goda,Y, C F Stevens, 1998, Readily releasable pool size changes associated with long term depression: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 95, 1283-1288.

Gold, JI, M F Bear, 1994, A model of dendritic spine Ca2+ concentration exploring possible bases for a sliding synaptic modification threshold: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, . 91, 3941-3945.

Graf, W, D L Meyer, 1978, Eye positions in fishes suggest different modes of interaction between commands and reflexes: J.Comp.Physiol., 128, 241-250.

Gray, CM, 1993, Rhythmic activity in neuronal systems: insights into integrative function, in L Nadel and D Stein (eds), Lectures in Complex Systems (SFI Studies in the Sciences of Complexity, Lect. Vol. V): Addison-Wesley, p. 89-161.

Hagiwara, S, T H Bullock. 1955. Study of intracellular potentials in pacemaker and integrative neurons of the lobster cardiac ganglion. Biol.Bull. 109, 341.

Hernández OH, Ramón F, Bullock TH (1999) Expectation in invertebrates: crayfish have "omitted stimulus potentials." Proc Sixth Joint Symp on Neural Computation, University of California, San Diego 9:50-56

Horridge, GA, 1968, Five types of memory in crab eye responses, in FD Carlson (ed), Physiological and Biochemical Aspects of Nervous Integration: New Jersey, not known, p. 245-265.

Juusola, M, A S French, R O Uusitalo, M Weckstrom, 1996, Information processing by graded-potential transmission through tonically active synapses: Trends in Neurosciences, 19, 292-297.

Kennedy, D, 1968, Input and output connections of single arthropod neurons, in FD Carlson (ed), Physiological and Biochemical Aspects of Nervous Integration: New Jersey, p. 285-306.

Leonard JL 2000a. Ed. of "Identifiable Neurons in Invertebrates: From Invariant Cells to Dynamic Systems". Brain Behav. Evol., 55 (5) 50:pp.

Leonard, JL 2000b. Simpler systems in comparative and integrative neurobiology. Prog.Neurobiol

Lev-Ram,V, S T Wong, D R Storm, R Y Tsien, 2002, A new form of cerebellar long-term potentiation is postsynaptic and depends on nitric oxide but not cAMP: Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.USA, 99, 8389-8393.

Libet,B, 1988, Mediation of nonclassical postsynaptic responses by cyclic nucleotides, in M Avoli, TA Reader, RW Dykes, and P Gloor (eds), Neurotransmitters and Cortical Function. From Molecules to Mind: New York, Plenum Press, p. 453-469.

Lisman,JE, 1997, Bursts as a unit of neural information: making unreliable synapses reliable: Trends in Neurosciences, 20, 38-43.

Markram,H, Y Wang, M Tsodyks, 1998, Differential signaling via the same axon of neocortical pyramidal neurons: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 95, 5323-5328.

Maynard,DMJr. 1953a. Integration in the cardiac ganglion of Homarus. Biol.Bull. 105, 367.

Maynard,DMJr. 1953b. Inhibition in a simple ganglion. Fed.Proc. 12, 95.

Montague,PR, 1995, Integrating information at single synaptic connections: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 92, 2424-2425.

Newman,EA, P H Hartline, 1981, Integration of visual and infrared information in bimodal neurons of the rattlesnake optic tectum: Science, v. 213, p. 789-791.

Nimchinsky EA et al. (1999) A neuronal morphologic type unique to humans and great apes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 96: 5268-5273.

Otani,T, T H Bullock. 1957. Responses to depolarizing currents across the membrane of some invertebrate ganglion cells. Anat.Rec. 128, 599.

Otani,T, T H Bullock, 1959, Effects of presetting the membrane potential of the soma of spontaneous and integrating ganglion cells: Physiol.Zool., 32, 104-114.

Peinado,A, 2000, Traveling slow waves of neural activity: a novel form of network activity in developing neocortex: Journal of Neuroscience, v. 20.

Perkel,DH, T H Bullock, 1968, Neural coding: Neurosciences Research Program Bulletin, 6, 221-348.

Petersen,CCH, R C Malenka, R A Nicoll, J J Hopfield, 1998, All-or-none potentiation at CA3-CA1 synapses: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 95, 4732-4737.

Rao,KP, K S Babu, N Ishiko, T H Bullock, 1969, Effectiveness of temporal pattern in the input to a ganglion: Inhibition in the cardiac ganglion of spiny lobsters: J.Neurobiol., 2, 233-245.

Reinoso-Suarez,F, C Ajmone-Marsan, 1984, Cortical Integration: Basic, Archicortical, and Cortical Association Levels of Neural Integration, New York, Raven.

Richmond,BJ, L M Optican, M Podell, H Spitzer, 1987, Temporal encoding of two-dimensional patterns by single units in primate inferior temporal cortex. I. Response characteristics: J.Neurophysiol., 57, 132-146.

Rubin,AM, J H Young, A C Milne, D W F Schwarz, J M Fredrickson, 1975, Vestibular-neck integration in the vestibular nuclei: Brain Research, 96, 99-102.

Schmid,K, G Böhmer, 1984, An electronic device for accurate quantification of neuronal XX mass activity based on a digital integration method: Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 11, 159-167.

Schmielau,F, 1980, Integration of visual and nonvisual information in nucleus reticularis thalami of the cat, in Not known (ed), Developmental Neurobiology of Vision: New York, Plenum Press, p. 205-226.

Schütt A, Baar E, Bullock TH (1999) Power spectra of ongoing activity of the snail brain can discriminate odorants. Comp Biochem Physiol A 123:95-110

Schütt A, Bullock TH, Baar E (2000) Odorant-induced low frequency activities of the Helix pedal ganglion are odorant-specific and related to behaviour. Comp Biochem. Physiol A 124:297-311

Segundo,JP, 1986, What can neurons do to serve as integrating devices?: J.Theor.Neurobiol., 5, 1-59.

Segundo,JP, G P Moore, L J Stensaas, T H Bullock, 1963, Sensitivity of neurones in Aplysia to temporal pattern of arriving impulses: Journal of Experimental Biology, 40, 643-667.

Sejnowski,TJ, 1997, The year of the dendrite: Science, 275, 178-179.

Serrato,J, O H Hernández, F Ramón, 1996, Integration of visual signals in the crayfish brain: multiunit recordings in eyestalk and brain: Comp.Biochem.Physiol., 114A, 211-217.

Siegler,MVS, 1984, Local interneurones and local interactions in arthropods: Journal of Experimental Biology, 112, 253-281.

Stanford,LR, P H Hartline, 1984, Spatial and temporal integration in primary trigeminal nucleus of rattlesnake infrared system: J.Neurophysiol., v. 51, p. 1077-1090.

Suga,N, Y Yajima, 1988, Auditory-vocal integration in the midbrain of the mustached bat: periaqueductal gray and reticular formation, in JD Newman (ed), The Physiological Control of Mammalian Vocalization: New York, Plenum Publishing Corp., p. 87-107.

Swenarchuk,LE, H L Atwood, 1975, Long term synaptic facilitation with minimal calcium entry: Brain Research, 100, 205-208.

Tauc,L, 1960, Evidence of synaptic inhibitory actions not conveyed by inhibitory post-synaptic potentials, in Eeal Roberts (ed), Inhibitions in the Nervous System and Gamma-amino-butyric Acid: Oxford, Pergamon, p. 85-89.

Terzuolo,CA, T H. 1957. Bullock. Inhibition and acceleration in some invertebrate ganglion cells. Anat.Rec. 128, 634.

Terzuolo,CA, T H Bullock, 1956, Measurement of imposed voltage gradient adequate to modulate neuronal firing: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 42, 687-694.

Thorson,J, M Biederman-Thorson, 1974, Distributed relaxation processes in sensory adaptation: Science, 183, 161-172.

Tononi,G, O Sporns, G M Edelman, 1994, A measure for brain complexity: relating functional segregation and integration in the nervous system: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, v. 91, p. 5033-5037.

Toyama,K, Y Komatsu, K Shibuki, 1984, Integration of retinal and motor signals of eye movements in striate cortex cells of the alert cat: J.Neurophysiol., 51, 649-665.

Tsodyks,MV, H Markram, 1997, The neural code between neocortical pyramidal neurons depends on neurotransmitter release probability: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, v. 94, p. 719-723.

Vibert,J-F, D Caille, J P Segundo, 1985, Examination with a computer of how parameters changes and variabilities influence a model of oscillator entrainment: Biol.Cybern., 53, 79-91.

Vizi, ES, E Lábos, 1991, Non-synaptic interactions at presynaptic level: Prog.Neurobiol., 37, 145-163.

Watanabe,A, T H Bullock. 1959. Modulation of activity of one neuron by subthreshold slow potentials in another. Fed.Proc. 18, 167.

Watanabe,A, T H Bullock, 1960, Modulation of activity of one neuron by subthreshold slow potentials in another in lobster cardiac ganglion: J.Gen.Physiol., 43, 1031-1045.

Watanabe,S, D A Hoffman, M Migliore, D Johnston, 2002, Dendritic K+ channels contribute to spike-timing dependent long-term potentiation in hippocampal pyramidal neurons: Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.USA, 99, 8366-8371.

Weckström,M, M Juusola, S B Laughlin, 1992, Presynaptic enhancement of signal transients in photoreceptor terminals in the compound eye: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 250, 83-89.

Whittington,MA, R D Traub, H J Faulkner, I M Stanford, J G R Jefferys, 1997, Recurrent excitatory postsynaptic potentials induced by synchronized fast cortical oscillations: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 94, 12198-12203.

Wiese,K, R L Calabrese, D Kennedy, 1976, Integration of directional mechanosensory input by crayfish interneurons: J.Neurophysiol., 39, 834-843.

Wilson,VJ, W H Talbot, 1963, Integration at an inhibitory interneurone: inhibition of Renshaw cells: Nature, 200, 1325-1327.

Wu,L-G, J G Borst, B Sakmann, 1998, R-type ca2+ currents evoke transmitter release at a rat central synapse: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 95, 4720-4725.

Zoli,M, et al., 1999, Volume transmission in the CNS and its relevance from neuropsychopharmacology: Trends Pharmacol.Sci., 20, 142-150.

Zucker,RS, 1989, Short-term synaptic plasticity: Annu.Rev.Neurosci., 12, 13-31.


Repository Staff Only: item control page