Cogprints

The bargaining model of depression

Hagen, Edward H (2002) The bargaining model of depression. [Book Chapter] (In Press)

Warning

There is a more recent version of this eprint available. Click here to view it.

Full text available as:

[img]
Preview
PDF
178Kb

Abstract

Minor depression—low mood often accompanied by a loss of motivation—is almost certainly an adaptation to circumstances that, in ancestral environments, imposed a fitness cost. It is, in other words, the psychic equivalent of physical pain. Major depression is characterized by additional symptoms—such as loss of interest in virtually all activities and suicidality—that have no obvious utility. The frequent association of these severe and disabling symptoms with apparently functional symptoms like sadness and low mood challenges a functional account of depression as a whole. Given that the principle cause of major unipolar depression is a significant negative life event, and that its characteristic symptom is a loss of interest in virtually all activities, it is possible that this syndrome functions somewhat like a labor strike. When powerful others are benefiting from an individual’s efforts, but the individual herself is not benefiting, she can, by reducing her productivity, put her value to them at risk in order to compel their consent and assistance in renegotiating the social contract so that it will yield net fitness benefits for her. In partial support of this hypothesis, depression is associated with the receipt of considerable social benefits despite the negative reaction it causes in others.

Item Type:Book Chapter
Keywords:unipolar depression bargaining
Subjects:Psychology > Evolutionary Psychology
Psychology > Clinical Psychology
Psychology > Social Psychology
ID Code:2471
Deposited By:Hagen, Edward
Deposited On:23 Sep 2002
Last Modified:11 Mar 2011 08:55

Available Versions of this Item

References in Article

Select the SEEK icon to attempt to find the referenced article. If it does not appear to be in cogprints you will be forwarded to the paracite service. Poorly formated references will probably not work.

Abramson L. Y., Metalsky G. I. and Alloy L. B. (1989) Hopelessness depression: A theory-based subtype of depression. Psychological Review 96: 358-372.

Affonso D. D. and Arizmendi T. G. (1986) Disturbances in post-partum adaptation and depressive symptomatology. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynaecology 5: 15-32.

Alexander R. D. Ostracism and indirect reciprocity: The reproductive significance of humor. Ethology & Sociobiology 7: 253-270. 1986.

APA (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association.

Austin M., Mitchell P., and Goodwin G. M. (2001) Cognitive deficits in depression. British Journal of Psychiatry 178:200-206.

Axelrod R. and Dion D. (1988) The Further Evolution of Cooperation. Science 242: 1385-1390.

Bancroft J, Hawton K, Simkin S, Kingston B, Cumming C, Whitwell D (1979) The reasons people give for taking overdoses: a further inquiry. British Journal of Medical Psychology 52: 353-365.

Beck AT. (1967) Depression: Clinical, Experimental and Theoretical Aspects. London: Staples.

Beck A. T. (1996) Depression as an evolutionary strategy. Presented at: Annual Meeting of the Human Behavior and Evolution Society, June 27, Evanston, Ill.

Beck C. T. (1995) The effects of postpartum depression on maternal-infant interaction: a meta-analysis. Nursing Research 44: 298-304.

Beck C. T. (1996a) A meta-analysis of the relationship between postpartum depression and infant temperament. Nursing Research 45: 225-230.

Beck C. T. (1996b) Postpartum Depressed Mothers’ Experiences Interacting with Their Children. Nursing Research 45: 98-104.

Bell C., Abrams J. and Nutt D. (2001) Tryptophan depletion and its implications for psychiatry. British Journal of Psychiatry 178: 399-405.

Benassi V. A., Sweeney P. D. and Dufour C. L. (1988) Is there a relation between locus of control orientation and depression? Journal of Abnormal Psychology 97: 357-367.

Berndt R. M. (1962) Excess and restraint. Chicago University Press.

Bhattacharyya, Deborah Poole (1981) Bengali conceptions of mental illness. Dissertation: Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Bierut L. J., Heath A. C., Bucholz K. K., Dinwiddie S. H., Madden P. A. F., Statham D. J., Dunne M. P., Martin N. G. (1999) Major depressive disorder in a community-based twin sample: Are there different genetic and environmental contributions for men and women? Archives of General Psychiatry 56: 557-563.

Boath E. H., Pryce A. J. and Cox J. L. (1998) Postnatal depression: the impact on the family. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology 16: 199-203.

Boergers J., Spirito A. and Donaldson D. (1998) Reasons for Adolescent Suicide Attempts: Associations with Psychological Functioning. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 37: 1287-1293.

Boehm C. (1996) Emergency Decisions, Cultural-Selection Mechanics, and Group Selection. Current Anthropology 37: 763-793.

Bohannan, P. (1960) African homicide and suicide. Princeton University Press.

Bostwick J. M. and Pankratz V. S. (2000) Affective disorders and suicide risk: a reexamination. American Journal Psychiatry 157:1925-1932.

Boyd R. and Richerson P. J. (1988) The evolution of reciprocity in sizable groups. Journal of Theoretical Biology 132: 337-356.

Boyd R. and Richerson P. J. (1992) Punishment Allows the Evolution of Cooperation (or Anything Else) in Sizable Groups. Ethology and Sociobiology 13: 171-195.

Brown G.W. (1998) Genetic and population perspectives on life events and depression. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 33: 363-372.

Brown G. W., Adler Z. and Bifulco A. (1988) Life events difficulties and recovery from chronic depression. British Journal of Psychiatry 152: 487-98.

Brown G. W., Lemyre L. and Bifulco A. (1992) Social factors and recovery from anxiety and depressive disorders: a test of the specificity hypothesis. British Journal of Psychiatry 161: 44-54.

Brown M. F. (1986) Power, gender, and the social meaning of Aguaruna suicide. Man New Series 21: 311-328.

Campbell S. B., Cohn J. F., Flanagan C., Popper S. and Meyers T. (1992) Course and correlates of postpartum depression during the transition to parenthood. Development and Psychopathology 4: 29–47.

Clutton-Brock T. H. (1991) The evolution of parental care. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.

Clutton-Brock T. H. and Parker G. A. (1995) Punishment in animal societies. Nature 373: 209-216.

Conner K. R., Duberstein P. R., Conwell Y., Seidlitz L. and Caine E. D. (2001) Psychological vulnerability to completed suicide: A review of empirical studies. Suicide & Life-Threatening Behavior 31: 367-385.

Coyne J. C. (1976) Depression and the response of others. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 85: 186–193.

Daly M. and Wilson M. (1984) A Sociobiological Analysis of Human Infanticide. In Infanticide: Comparative and Evolutionary Perspectives. G. Hausfater and S. B. Hrdy (Eds.). New York: Aldine. pp. 487-502.

deCatanzaro D. (1981) Suicide and Self-Damaging Behavior: A Sociobiological Perspective. New York: Academic Press.

Edwards A. C. (1962) The Ovimbundu under two sovereignties. London: Oxford University Press.

Ekman P. (1994) Strong evidence for universals in facial expressions: a reply to Russell's mistaken critique. Psychological Bulletin 115: 268-87.

Fessler D. M. T. (in press) The Male Flash of Anger: Violent Response to Transgression as an Example of the Intersection of Evolved Psychology and Culture. In: Missing the Revolution: Darwinism for Social Scientists, J. Barkow (ed). Oxford University Press.

Figueredo A. J., Corral-Verdugo V., Frias-Armenta M., Bachar K. J., White J., McNeill P. L., Kirsner B. R. and del Pilar Castell-Ruiz I. (2001) Blood, solidarity, status, and honor: The sexual balance of power and spousal abuse in Sonora, Mexico. Evolution and Human Behavior; 22:295–328.

Finch J. F., Okun M. A., Pool G.J. and Ruehlman L. S. (1999) A Comparison of the Influence of Conflictual and Supportive Social Interactions on Psychological Distress. Journal of Personality 67: 581-621.

Finch J. F., and Zautra A. J. (1992) Testing latent longitudinal models of social ties and depression among the elderly: A comparison of distribution-free and maximum likelihood estimates with nonnormal data. Psychology and Aging 7: 107–118.

Fortune R. F. (1932) Sorcerers of Dobu. London: Routledge.

Firth R. (1951) Elements of social organization. London: Watts.

Giddens A. (1964) Suicide, attempted suicide, and the suicide threat. Man 64: 115-116.

Gold P. W., Goodwin F. K. and Chrousos G. P. (1988) Clinical and biochemical manifestation of depression. Relation to the neurobiology of stress. New England Journal of Medicine 319: 348 –353, 413–420.

Goldberg D. (2001) Vulnerability factors for common mental illnesses. British Journal of Psychiatry 178 (suppl. 40): s69-s71.

Goldney R. D., Dal Grande E., Fisher L. J. and Wilson D. (2002) Population attributable risk of major depression for suicidal ideation in a random and representative community sample. Journal of Affective Disorders

Gorer G. (1938) Himalayan Village. London: Joseph.

Hagen E. H. (1996) Postpartum depression as an adaptation to paternal and kin exploitation. Human Behavior and Evolution Society 8th Annual Conference, Northwestern University.

Hagen E. H. (1999) The functions of postpartum depression. Evolution and Human Behavior 20: 325-359.

Hagen E. H. (in press) Depression as bargaining: the case postpartum. Evolution and Human Behavior.

Hamilton W. D. (1964) The Genetical Evolution of Social Behavior. Journal of Theoretical Biology 7: 1-16.

Harris T. (2001) Recent developments in understanding the psychosocial aspects of depression. British Medical Bulletin 57: 17–32.

Hart S., Field T. and Roitfarb, M. (1999) Depressed mothers’ assessments of their neonates’ behaviors. Infant Mental Health Journal 20: 200–210.

Hawton K., Cole D., O'Grady J. and Osborn M. (1982) Motivational aspects of deliberate self-poisoning in adolescents. British Journal of Psychiatry 141:286-291.

Henderson S. (1974) Care-eliciting behavior in man. Journal of Nervous Mental Disorders 159: 172-181.

Hess N. C. and Hagen E. H. (n.d.) Informational warfare.

Hirschfeld R. M. (2000) History and evolution of the monoamine hypothesis of depression. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 61 Suppl 6: 4-6.

Holsboer F. (2000) The Corticosteroid Receptor Hypothesis of Depression. Neuropsychopharmacology 23: 477-501.

Holsboer F., Barden N. (1996) Antidepressants and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical regulation. Endocrine Reviews 17: 187–205.

Honigman J. J. (1963) Understanding culture. New York: Harper & Row.

Hopen C. E. (1958) The pastoral Fulbe family in Gwandu. London: Routledge.

James D., Hawton K. (1985) Overdoses: explanations and attitudes in self-poisoners and significant others. British Journal of Psychiatry 146: 481-485.

Jeffreys M. D. W (1952) Samsonic suicide or suicide of revenge among Africans. African Studies 11: 118-122.

Jennings K. D., Ross S., Popper S. and Elmore, M. (1999) Thoughts of Harming Infants in Depressed and Nondepressed Mothers. Journal of Affective Disorders 54:21-28.

Kendler K. S., Gardner C. O. and Prescott C. A. (2002) Toward a Comprehensive Developmental Model for Major Depression in Women. American Journal of Psychiatry 159: 1133-1145.

Kendler K. S. and Karkowski-Shuman L. (1997) Stressful life events and genetic liability to major depression: Genetic control of exposure to the environment? Psychological Medicine 27: 539-547.

Kendler K. S., Kessler R. C., Neale M. C., Heath A. C. and others. (1993) The prediction of major depression in women: Toward an integrated etiologic model. American Journal of Psychiatry 150:1139-114.

Kendler K. S., Kessler R. C., Walters E. E., MacLean C., and others. (1995) Stressful life events, genetic liability, and onset of an episode of major depression in women. American Journal of Psychiatry 152: 833-842.

Kendler K. S., Thornton L.M. and Gardner C.O. (2000) Stressful life events and previous episodes in the etiology of major depression in women: an evaluation of the "kindling" hypothesis. American Journal of Psychiatry 157: 1243-51.

Kendler K. S., Thornton L. M. and Gardner C. O. (2001) Genetic risk, number of previous depressive episodes, and stressful life events in predicting onset of major depression. American Journal of Psychiatry 158: 582-6.

Kennan J. and Wilson R. (1993) Bargaining with Private Information. Journal of Economic Literature 31: 45-104.

Kessler R. C., Nelson C. B., Mcgonagle K. A., Liu J., Swartz M., Blazer D.G. (1996) Comorbidity of DSM III-R major depressive disorder in the general population: results from the US National Co-morbidity Survey. British Journal of Psychiatry 168: 17–30.

Kreitman N. (1977) Parasuicide. Wiley & Sons, London.

Kumar R. and Robson K. M. (1984) A prospective study of emotional disorders in childbearing women. British Journal of Psychiatry 144: 35-47.

Lederbogen F., Gilles M., Maras A., Hamann B., Colla M., Heuser I. and Deuschle M. (2001) Increased platelet aggregability in major depression? Psychiatry Research 102: 255-61.

Leenstra A. S., Ormel J. and Giel R. (1995) Positive life change and recovery from anxiety and depression. British Journal of Psychiatry 166: 333-43.

Levenson H. (1974) Activism and Powerful Others: Distinctions Within the Concept of Internal-External Control. Journal of Personality Assessment 38: 377-383.

Lewis A. J. (1934) Melancholia: A clinical survey of depressive states. Journal of Mental Science 80: 1-43.

MacKey W. C. and Immerman R. S. (2000) Depression as a counter for women against men who renege on the sex contract. Psychology, Evolution & Gender 2: 47-71.

Maier W., Gansicke M., Gater R., Rezaki M., Tiemens B., Florenzano Urzua R. (1999) Gender differences in the prevalence of depression: a survey in primary care. Journal of Affective Disorders 53: 241– 252.

Malinowski B. (1949) Crime and custom in savage society. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Mazure C. M., Bruce M. L., Maciejewski P. K. and Jacobs S. C. (2000) Adverse life events and cognitive-personality characteristics in the prediction of major depression and antidepressant response. American Journal of Psychiatry 157: 896-903.

Nemeroff C. B. (1996) The Corticotropin-Releasing Factor (CRF) Hypothesis of Depression: New Findings and New Directions. In Molecular Psychiatry 1: 336-342.

Nesse R. (1991) What Good Is Feeling Bad - The Evolutionary Benefits Of Psychic Pain. Sciences 31: 30-37.

Nesse R. (1999) What Darwinian Medicine Offers Psychiatry. In Evolutionary Medicine, W. R. Trevathan, E. O. Smith and J. J. McKenna, eds. Oxford University Press. pp.351-373.

Nesse R. (2000) Is Depression an Adaptation? Archives of General Psychiatry 57:14-20.

NIMH (2000) Frequently Asked Questions about Suicide. http://www.nimh.nih.gov/research/suicidefaq.cfm

Oldehinkel A. J., Ormel J. and Neeleman J. (2000) The effect of positive life change on time to recovery from depression: some people benefit more than others. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 109: 299-307.

Owens M. J., Nemeroff C. B. (1993) The role of CRF in the pathophysiology of affective disorders: Laboratory and clinical studies. CIBA Foundation Symposium 172: 293–316.

Pariante C. M. and Miller A. H. (2001) Glucocorticoid Receptors in Major Depression: Relevance to Pathophysiology and Treatment. Biological Psychiatry 49: 391– 404.

Patel V. (2001) Cultural factors and international epidemiology. British Medical Bulletin 57:33–45.

Platt S., Bille-Brahe U., Kerkhof A., Schmidtke A., Bjerke T., Crepet P., De Leo D., Haring C., Lonnqvist J., Michel K., et al. (1992) Parasuicide in Europe: the WHO/EURO multicentre study on parasuicide. I. Introduction and preliminary analysis for 1989. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 85: 97-104.

Presson P. K. and Benassi V. A. (1996) Locus of control orientation and depressive symptomatology: A meta-analysis. Journal of Social Behavior & Personality 11: 201-212.

Price J. S. (1967) The dominance hierarchy and the evolution of mental illness. Lancet 2: 243-246.

Price J., Sloman L., Gardner R., Gilbert P. and Rohde P. (1994) The Social Competition Hypothesis of Depression. British Journal of Psychiatry 164: 309-315.

Reay M. (1959) The Kuma. Melbourne University Press.

Rodseth L., Wrangham R. W., Harrigan A. M., and Smuts B. B. (1991) The human community as a primate society. Current Anthropology 32:221-254.

Rotter J. B. (1966) Generalized Expectancies for Internal Versus External Control of Reinforcement. Psychological Monographs: General & Applied 80: 1-28.

Schatzberg A. F., Samson J. A., Rothschild A. J., et al. (1990) Depression secondary to anxiety: Findings from the McLean Hospital Research Facilities. Psychiatric Clinics of North America 13: 633–649.

Schieffelin E. L. (1985) The cultural analysis of depressive affect: An example from New Guinea. In A. M. Kleinman & B. Good (Eds.), Culture and Depression, Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 101-133.

Segrin C. and Dillard J. P. (1992) The interactional theory of depression: A meta-analysis of the research literature. Journal of Social & Clinical Psychology 11: 43-70.

Seligman M. E. P. (1975) Helplessness: on Depression, Development, and Death. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman & Co, Publishers.

Seres M., Aureli F., and B. M. de Waal F. (2001) Successful Formation of a Large Chimpanzee Group out of Two Preexisting Subgroups Zoo Biology 20: 501–515.

Sheeber L., Hops H., and Davis B. (2001) Family Processes in Adolescent Depression Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review 4: 19-35.

Shimbo D., Child J., Davidson K., Geer E., Osende J. I., Reddy S., Dronge A., Fuster V. and Badimon J. J. (2002) Exaggerated Serotonin-Mediated Platelet Reactivity as a Possible Link in Depression and Acute Coronary Syndromes. The American Journal of Cardiology 89: 331-333.

Shostak M. (1981) Nisa: The Life and Words of a !Kung Woman. Vintage Books: New York.

Sommer V., Denham A. and Little K. (2002) Postconflict behaviour of wild Indian langur monkeys: avoidance of opponents but rarely affinity. Animal Behaviour 63:637–648.

Spence M. (1974) Market Signaling. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Stengel E. (1974) Suicide and attempted suicide. New York: Penguin.

Suarez S. D. and Gallup G. G. (1985) Depression as a response to reproductive failure. Journal of social and biological structures 8: 279-287.

Thornhill R. and Furlow B. (1998) Stress and human reproductive behavior: Attractiveness, women's sexual development, postpartum depression, and baby's cry. In Stress and behavior. A. P. Moller, M. Milinski, and P. J. B. Slater (Eds.), San Diego, California: Academic Press. pp. 319-369.

Thornhill R. and Thornhill N. W. (1989) The Evolution of Psychological Pain. In Sociobiology and the Social Sciences. R. W. Bell and N. J. Bell (Eds.). Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press. pp. 73-103.

Tooby, J. and Cosmides, L. (1990) The past explains the present: Emotional adaptations and the structure of ancestral environments. Ethology & Sociobiology 11: 375-424.

Tooby J. and Cosmides L. (2000) Evolutionary Psychology and the Emotions. In Handbook of Emotions, 2nd Edition M. Lewis & J. M. Haviland-Jones (Eds.), NY: Guilford.

Tousignant M. and Moldonado M. (1989) Sadness, depression and social reciprocity in highland Ecuador. Social Science and Medicine 28: 899-904.

Trivers R. L. (1971) The Evolution of Reciprocal Altruism. The Quarterly Review of Biology 46: 35-57.

Trivers R. L. (1972) Parental investment and sexual selection. In Campbell, Sexual Selection and the Descent of Man, 1871–1971.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (1993) Depression in Primary Care: Vol. 2. Treatment of Major Depression. AHCPR Publication No 93-0551.

Ustun,T. B., & Sartorius N. (1995) Mental illness in General Health Care: An international study John Wiley on behalf of the World Health Organization.

Vinokur A. D. and van Ryn M. (1993) Social support and undermining in close relationships: Their independent effects on the mental health of unemployed persons. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 65: 350–359.

Watson, P. J. and Andrews, P. W. (2002) Toward a revised evolutionary adaptationist analysis of depression: The social navigation hypothesis. Journal of Affective Disorders.

Weissman M. M., Bland R. C., Canino G. J., Greenwald S., Hwu H.-G., Joyce P. R., Karam E. G., Clee.-K., Lellouch J., Lepine J.-P., Newman S. C., Rubio-Stipec M., Wells J. E., Wickramaratne P. J., Wittchen H.-U. And E.-K. Yeh. (1999) Prevalence of suicide ideation and suicide attempts in nine countries. Psychological Medicine 29: 9-17.

Wells K. B., Stewart A., Hays R.D., Burnam M.A., Rogers W., Daniels M., Berry S., Greenfield S., Ware J. (1989) The functioning and well-being of depressed patients. Results from the Medical Outcomes Study. Journal of the American Medical Association 262: 914-9.

Wenegrat B. (1995) Illness and Power. New York, NY: University Press.

Whiffen V. E. and Gotlib I. H. (1993) Comparison of postpartum and nonpostpartum depression: Clinical presentation, psychiatric history, and psychosocial functioning. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology 61: 485-494.

Wolman, B. B. (1990) Preface. In Depressive disorders: Facts, theories, and treatment methods. B. B. Wolman and G. Stricker (Eds.), New York: John Wiley & Sons.

World Health Organization (2001) The World Health Report 2001 - Health systems: improving performance. Geneva: World Health Organization.

Wulsin L. R., Vaillant G. E. and Wells V. E. (1999) A Systematic Review of the Mortality of Depression. Psychosomatic Medicine 61: 6–17.

Zahavi, A. (1975) Mate selection—a selection for a handicap. Journal of Theoretical Biology 53: 205-214.

Metadata

Repository Staff Only: item control page