Cogprints

Conditioned blocking and schizophrenia: a replication and study of the role of symptoms, age, onset-age of psychosis and illness-duration

Bender, and Müller, and Oades, and Sartory, (2001) Conditioned blocking and schizophrenia: a replication and study of the role of symptoms, age, onset-age of psychosis and illness-duration. [Journal (Paginated)]

Full text available as:

[img]PDF
718Kb

Abstract

Introduction: Measures of selective attention processing like latent inhibition (LI) and conditioned blocking (CB) are disturbed in some patients with schizophrenia. (LI is the delay in learning about the associations of a stimulus that has been associated with no event [vs. de novo learning]; CB is the delay in learning the associations of a stimulus-component when the other component has already started to acquire these associations.) We proposed, - a) to replicate the reported decreases of CB in patients without paranoid-hallucinatory symptoms, b) to see if CB depends on the age of illness-onset and its duration, as reported for LI. Methods: We studied 101 young and old, acute and chronically ill patients with schizophrenia, of whom 62 learned a modified 'mouse-in-house' CB task, and compared them with 62 healthy controls matched for age, education and socio-economic background. Results: 1/ CB was more evident in patients with a diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia than other subtypes. 2/ An unusual persistence of high CB scores through testing was associated with productive symptoms (including positive thought disorder). 3/ Reduced CB related to the increased expression of a) Schneider's first rank symptoms of ideas-of-reference and b) to negative symptoms like poor rapport and poor attention. 4/ CB was less evident in the older patients (age range 9.5-63.3y) and those with an earlier illness-onset (range 8.5-45.8y). Conclusions: In contrast to the similar LI test of selective attention CB is found in patients with paranoid schizophrenia and, unlike LI, the expression of CB by patients with schizophrenia is not related closely to illness-duration. Reduced CB tended to be found in those with an earlier onset, a group often noted for more severe cognitive problems. These results imply that CB and LI reflect the activity of different underlying processes. We suggest that reduced CB on the first few test-trials in nonparanoid schizophrenia reflects the unusual persistence of controlled information processing strategies that would normally become automatic during conditioning. In contrast continued CB during testing in patients with positive (paranoid) symptoms reflects an unusual persistence of automatic processing strategies.

Item Type:Journal (Paginated)
Keywords:attention, conditioned blocking, Kamin blocking, schizophrenia, paranoid, nonparanoid, thought-disorder, disorganized, onset, illness-duration,ideas-of-reference, passivity, delusions, learning
Subjects:Psychology > Clinical Psychology
Psychology > Cognitive Psychology
Neuroscience > Neuropsychiatry
Psychology > Psychobiology
ID Code:2051
Deposited By:OADES, Robert D.
Deposited On:29 Jan 2002
Last Modified:11 Mar 2011 08:54

References in Article

Select the SEEK icon to attempt to find the referenced article. If it does not appear to be in cogprints you will be forwarded to the paracite service. Poorly formated references will probably not work.

Addington, J. and Addington, D., 1998. Visual attention and symptoms in schizophrenia: a 1-year follow-up. Schizophr. Res. 34, 95-99.

American Psychiatric Association, 1994. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), 4th ed., American Psychiatric Association, Washington, D.C.

Andreasen, N. C., 1984. The Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS). University of Iowa , Iowa City, IA.

Arndt, S., Turvey, C., Andreasen, N. C., (1999). Correlating and predicting psychiatric symptom ratings: Spearman’s r versus Kendall’s tau correlation. J. psychiatr. Res. 33, 97-104.

Barnes, T. R. E., 1989. A rating scale for the drug-induced akathisia. Br. J. Psychiatry 154, 672-676.

Baruch, I., Hemsley, D. R., Gray, J. A., 1988. Differential performance of acute and chronic schizophrenics in a latent inhibition task. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 176, 598-606.

Brauns, H., Haun, D., Steinmann, S., 1997. The construction of an internationally comparable classification by class. Erwerbsstatistische Besonderheiten am Beispiel von Labour Force Surveys der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Frankreichs, Großbritanniens und Ungarns. Arbeitspapiere Arbeitsbereich 1/22, Mannheim Center for European Social Research (MZES), Mannheim.

Carpenter, W. T., Kirkpatrick, B., Buchanan, R. W., 1999. Schizophrenia: syndromes and diseases. J. Psychiatr. Res., 33, 473-475.

Caza, P. A., 1994. Noradrenergic influences on blocking: interactions with development. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 21, 9-17.

Connell, P., 1958. Amphetamine Psychosis. Chapman & Hall, London.

CSS: Statistica. 1991. Complete Statistical System. Statsoft, Tulsa, OK.

Ellenbroek, B. A., Budde, S., Cools, A. R., 1996. Prepulse inhibition and latent inhibition: the role of dopamine in the medial prefrontal cortex. Neurosci. 75, 535-542.

Finkelstein, J. R. J., Cannon, T. D., Gur, R. E., Gur, R. C., Moberg, P., 1997. Attentional dysfunctions in neuroleptic-naive and neuroleptic-withdrawn schizophrenic patients and their siblings. J. Abnorm. Psychology 106, 203-212.

Gray, J. A., (1998). Integrating schizophrenia. Schizophr. Bull. 24, 249-266.

Gray, J. A., Feldon, J., Rawlins, J. N. P., Hemsley, D. R., Smith, A. D., 1991. The neuropsychology of schizophrenia. Behav. Brain Sci. 14, 1-20.

Gray, N. S., Hemsley, D. R., Gray, J. A., 1992. Abolition of latent inhibition in acute but not in chronic schizophrenics. Neurol. Psychiatry Brain Res. 1, 83-89.

Gray, N. S., Pilowsky, L. S., Gray, J. A., Kerwin, R. W., 1995. Latent inhibition in drug-naive schizophrenics: relationship to duration of illness and dopamine D2 binding using SPET. Schizophr. Res. 17, 95-107.

Gray, N. S., Pickering, A. D., Gray, J. A., Jones, S. H., Abrahams, S. H., Hemsley, D. R., 1997. Kamin blocking is not disrupted by amphetamine in human subjects. J. Psychopharmacology 11, 301-311.

Heim, G., 1989. Attentional functions in listening and schizophrenia: a selective review. Eur. Arch. Psychiat. Neurol. Sci. 239, 62-69.

Hemsley, D. R., 1987. An experimental psychological model for schizophrenia. In: Häfner, H. Gattaz, W. F., Janzarik, W. (Eds.). Search for the causes of schizophrenia, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 179-188.

Hoff, A. L., Harris, D., Faustman, W. O., Beal, M., De Villiers, D., Mone, R. D., Moses, J. A., Csernansky, J. G., 1996. A neuropsychological study of early onset schizophrenia. Schizophr. Res. 20, 21-28.

Jacobsen, L. K., Rapoport, J. L. (1998). Childhood-onset schizophrenia: implications of clinical and neurobiological research. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 39, 101-113.

Jahanshahi, M. and Frith, C. D., 1999. Willed action and its impairments. Cog. Neuropsychology 15, 483-534.

Jeste, D. V., McAdams, L. A., Palmer, B. W., Braff, D. L., Jernigan, T. L., Stout, J. C., Symonds, L. L., Bailey, A., Heaton, R. K., 1998. Relationship of neuropsychological and MRI measures to age of onset of schizophrenia. Acta Psychiat. Scand. 98, 156-164.

Jones, S. H., Gray, J. A., Hemsley, D. R., 1990. The Kamin blocking effect, incidental learning and psychoticism. Br. J. Psychology 81, 95-110.

Jones, S. H., Gray, J. A., Hemsley, D. R., 1992. The loss of the Kamin blocking effect in acute but not chronic schizophrenics. Biol. Psychiatry 32, 739-755.

Jones, S. H., Hemsley, D. R., Ball, S., Serra, A., 1997. Disruption of the Kamin blocking effect in schizophrenia and in normal subjects following amphetamine. Behav. Brain Res. 88, 103-114, 1997.

Kahlbaum, K. 1863. Die Gruppierung der psychischen Krankheiten. Kafemann, Danzig.

Kamin, L. J., 1969. Predictability, surprise, attention and conditioning. In: R. Church, R., Campbell, B. (Ed.). Punishment and aversive behavior, Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York, pp. 279-296.

Kay, S. R., Opler, L. A., Fizbein, A., 1992. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Manual. Multi-Health Systems, Toronto.

Lacroix, L., Broersen, L. M., Weiner, I., Feldon, J., 1998. The effects of excitotoxic lesion of the medial prefrontal cortex on latent inhibition, prepulse inhibition, food-hoarding, elevated plus-maze, active avoidance and locomotor activity in the rat. Neuroscience 84, 431-442.

Liddle, P. F., 1987. Schizophrenic syndromes, cognitive performance and neurological dysfunction. Psychol. Med. 17, 49-57.

Lorden, J. F., Rickert, E. J., Pellymounter, M. A., 1980. Forebrain norepinephrine and the selective processing of information. Brain Res. 190, 569-573.

Mackintosh, N.J., 1975. A theory of attention: variations in the associability of stimuli with reinforcement. Psychol. Rev. 82, 276-298.

Magaro, P. A., 1980. Cognition in schizophrenia and paranoia: the integration of cognitive processes. Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ.

Nestor, P.G., Shenton, M. E., Wible, C., Hokama, H., O’Donnell, B.F., Law, S., McCarley, R. W. (1998). A neuropsychological analysis of schizophrenic thought disorder. Schizophr. Res. 29, 217-225.

Oades, R. D., Bunk, D., Eggers, C., 1992. Paranoid schizophrenics may not use irrelevant signals: the use of measures of blocking and of urinary dopamine. Acta Paedopsychiatr. 55, 183-184.

Oades, R. D., Röpcke, B., Schepker, R., 1996a. A test of conditioned blocking and its development in childhood and adolescence: relationship to personality and monoamine metabolism. Dev. Neuropsychology 12, 207-230.

Oades, R. D., Zimmermann, B., Eggers, C., 1996b. Conditioned blocking in patients with paranoid, non-paranoid psychosis or obsessive compulsive disorder: associations with symptoms, personality and monoamine metabolism. J. Psychiatr. Res. 30, 369-390.

Oades, R. D., Heeper, C., Czwenk, A., Eisenbeis, I., Fierro, L., Dolberg, A., Müller, B. W., What neuropsychological signs are associated with the presence or absence of conditioned blocking in schizophrenia ? Schizophr. Res., 41, 291.

Oades, R. D., Rivet, J-M., Taghzouti, K., Kharouby, M., Simon, H., Le Moal, M., 1987. Catecholamines and conditioned blocking: effects of ventral tegmental, septal and frontal 6-hydroxydopmaine lesions in rats. Brain Res. 406, 136-146.

Oldfield, R. C., 1971. The assessment and analysis of handedness: The Edinburgh inventory. Neuropsychologia 9, 97-113.

Rickert, E. J., Bennett, T. L., Lane, P. and French, J., 1978. Hippocampectomy and the attenuation of blocking. Behav. Biol. 22, 147-160.

Simpson, G. M., Angus, J. W. S., 1970. A rating scale for extrapyramidal side-effects. Acta psychiatr. scand. supplement 212, 11-19.

Solomon, P. R., 1977. Role of the hippocampus in blocking and conditioned inhibition of the rat’s nictitating membrane response. J. Comp. Physiol. Psychology 91, 407-417.

Stirling, J. D., Hellewell, J. S. E., Qurashi, N., (1998). Self-monitoring dysfunction and the schizophrenic symptoms of alien control. Psychol. Med. 28, 675-683.

Weisbrod, M., Maier, S., Harig, S., Himmelsbach, U., Spitzer, M., (1998). Lateralised semantic and indirect semantic priming effects in people with schizophrenia. Br. J. Psychiatry 172, 142-146.

Metadata

Repository Staff Only: item control page