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Trait present (+), absent (-), ambiguous or variable (+/-), or no data ( ). "Normal" troops single breeding male (SM), multi-male (MM), or classification uncertain -- high variability or uncertain definition of "breeding" male (SM/MM).

[The eprint version is broken into 4 subtables: FT, ?T, Insufficient data, and NFT species; notes are all at the bottom however]

FT species
SpeciesTerritorialAllomotherFlamboyant Natal CoatFolivory RankSM/MMInfanticideNo. AF/troop (29)Less than meanFemale immigration observed
Pan troglodytes---13MM+6.8++
Gorilla gorilla---4MM+6.2 *++
Presbytis senexnn-/+1SM+3.7 *+-
P. johnii+++nSMsusp2.6 *++
P. entellus+/-+-3SM/MM+7.1++
P. melalophos (1,2)+n+12MMn5.4 **++
P. cristata+++7SM+13.0n+
Pygathrix nemaeus (3)n++9SMn3.4 **+-
Colobus badius rufomitratusnn-nSM+9.6 *n+
C. b. tephrosceles---nMM+(4)17.9n+
C. b. temminckii (5)-nnnMMsusp9 **n+
Alouatta seniculus (25)-~-22SM/MM+2.7 *++
A. paliatta-n-5MMn6.0 *++
Cebus capucinusnn-27MMn3.9++
Macaca radiatta---nMMn9.7 *n+
Papio hamadryasn--nSM+1.9 *++
Cercopithecus campbellin+-nSMn3.6+-
Propithecus verreauxi+n-nMMn2.1++

N=18; 18 with AF/troop: Mean = 6.4 ± 4.2


?T species
SpeciesTerritorialAllomotherFlamboyant Natal CoatFolivory RankSM/MMInfanticideNo. AF/troop (29)Less than meanFemale immigration observed
Colobus guereza+/-++nSM+3.0+-
Cebus apella (6)n+(7)-nMMn3.4 **+?
C. nigrivittatus (21)n--nSM/MM+(20)~6 **++
Ateles belzebuth---nMMn7.4n-
A. paniscusn--23MMn6.2+-
Macaca arctoides (8)n-(9)+nMMn? *** n-
Papio papionn-25MMn16.7n-
P. ursinus (10)+/-n-nMM+13.7n+
Theropithecus gelada---nSMn3.9++
Cercopithecus ascanius (11)+n-nSM+9.4 **n-
C. mitis (12)+--nSM+(22)8.2 **n-
Cercocebus albigena-n-6MMn5.7+-
Chiropotes satanas (20)nn-nMMn? *** +-
N=13; 11 with AF/troop: Mean = 7.6 ± 4.3


Insufficient Data
SpeciesTerritorialAllomotherFlamboyant Natal CoatFolivory RankSM/MMInfanticideNo. AF/troop (29)Less than meanFemale immigration observed
Presbytis rubicunda (13)n+(14)+15SMnTo 5 **,***+-
P. geeinn+nSMn4.6+-
P. aygula (28)nn+n?n3.0 ** ***+-
P. obscura (2,23)n++10SM/MMn5.4+-
P. pileatus (15)nn+nSMn3.4 **+-
Colobus polykomos (24)susp+(16)+2MMnca 7 **,***?-
C. angolensisnnnnSMn1.6+-
Nasalis larvatus (27)nnn16MMn7.7n-
Lemur catta+--nMMn3.1+-
L. fulvus---nMMn2.6+-
Saimiri oerstedi---26MMn9.0n-
Alouatta carayan--nMMn1.8+-
Cercopithecus monan--nSMnto 6 ***+-
C. nictitansn--14SMnto 6 ***+-
C. pogoniasn--nSMnto 6 ***+-
C. diana (23)+--n?nca 6 **,***+-
Cercocebus galeritusn--nMMn9.3n-
Miopithecus talapoin---20MMn21.0n-
Macaca nemestrinan--nMMn10.1n-
M. sylvanusn--8MM+16.3 **n-
M. fascicularis (17)---18MMn5.9+-
N=21; 14 with AF/troop: Mean = 7.3 ± 5.6


NFT species
SpeciesTerritorialAllomotherFlamboyant Natal CoatFolivory RankSM/MMInfanticideNo. AF/troop (29)Less than meanFemale immigration observed
Erythrocebus patas-+(18)-nSMn8.8n-
Macaca mulatta---19MMn8.1n(31)
M. fuscatan--nMMn? ***n(31)
M. sinica (19)n--11MMn8.6 **n- (30)
Papio anubis---nMM+(26)11.3n(31)
P. cynocephalus---nMMn12.2n(31)
Cercopithecus aethiops++-21MMn4.4+-
N=7; 6 with AF/troop: Mean = 8.9 ± 2.7.


TOTAL: 59 species, with AF/troop estimates for 49: Mean = 7.2 ± 4.5



Unless otherwise noted, data based on Clutton-Brock and Harvey (1977). Territoriality: Based primarily on Mitani and Rodman (1979). Allomother and Natal Coat: Based primarily on Hrdy (1977, Table 3.2; 1979). Folivory Rank: From Chivers and Hladik (1980: Fig. 17). I ranked the 28 polygynous species they list from 1 (largest value for 'index of gut differentiation'; most folivorous) to 28 (smallest value for index; least folivorous). Three species listed by Chivers and Hladik - Papio sphinx, Cebus griseus [sic], and Lagothrix lagotricha - are not included in Table III; they were considered "insufficient data" in the analysis (their ranks: 17, 28, and 24 respectively).


1) Female immigration - E. Bennet, pers. communication. P. femoralis and P. thomasi are demographically similar but are not included because they are so closely related to P. melalophos (Wilson and Wilson 1977). These authors believe that members of the melalophos group are noticeably less territorial than P. cristata.;

2) Demography and territoriality - Curtin and Chivers (1978), S. Hunt Curtin, (personal communication);

3) From Lippold (1977);

4) T. Struhsaker (personal communication);

5) From Starin (1981);

6) From Freese and Oppenheimer (1981);

7) From C. Cox (captive) and C. Janson (wild) (personal communication);

8) From Bertrand (1969);

9) From P. Whitten (personal communication);

10) From Anderson (1981), Hamilton et al. (1976); though Anderson has observed several clear cases of female transfer, P. ursinus is listed as ?T because it is otherwise so similar tocynocephalus andanubi; see Anderson (1982) for a discussion of the taxonomic status of chacma baboons.

11) From Struhsaker and Leland (1979);

12) From Rudran (1978);

13) From Stott and Selsor (1961);

14) From G. Davies (personal communication);

15) From Mukherjee (1978), Green (1981)

16) From Horwich and Manski (1975);

17) From Angst (1975), Tables II, IV, V, and VI;

18) From Chism (1978);

19) From Dittus (1975, 1979);

20) From van Roosmalen et al. 1981, M. G. M. van Roosmalen, (personal communication);

21) From J. Robinson, (personal communication);

22) From Butynski (1982);

23) From S. Hunt Curtin, (personal communication);

24) From D. Olson, (personal communication);

25) Adoption/allomothering and SM/MM: C. Crockett (personal communication);

26) From Collins et al. (1984);

27) Proboscis monkey social organization is still poorly understood. Of 72 independant party size counts, Yeager (1983) found 6 or fewer adult females in 70; 4 or fewer AF were present in over 70% of the parties observed.

28) From Ruhiyat (1983); AF per troop mean of Troops D and I-IV;

29) Adult Females (AF) per troop: (*) From Table I; (**) calculated from the source given as a reference; (***) not included in numerical statistics. For most other species, numbers of AF per troop were calculated from "population group" sizes listed by Clutton-Brock and Harvey (1977, Appendix) assuming an adult/immature ratio of 0.5 (see text for explanation and caution). The mean ± SD is given for each section. The "Less than mean" column refers to the total sample mean. Exceptions are as follows. Cercopithecus mona, nictitans, and pogonias: Struhsaker (1969) considers these SM species; adult sex ratios for the other Cercopithecus SMs are about 1:4 or less. AF/troop estimates based on 1:4 sex ratio and "feeding group" sizes of Clutton-Brock and Harvey (1977). T. gelada and P. hamadryas: Based on "breeding group" sizes. Colobus angolensis: Based on "feeding group" sizes. Macaca fuscata: Provisioning has altered the demography of Japanese macaques drastically;

30) In a popular article, Farook (1979) reports "adult females with their infants merging with another troop," probably at Polonaruwa;

31) See Who Transfers? in text.

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