Cogprints

The functions of postpartum depression

Hagen, Edward (1999) The functions of postpartum depression. [Preprint]

This is the latest version of this eprint.

Full text available as:

[img]PDF
198Kb

Abstract

Evolutionary approaches to parental care suggest that parents will not automatically invest in all offspring, and should reduce or eliminate investment in their children if the costs outweigh the benefits. Lack of paternal or social support will increase the costs born by mothers, whereas infant health problems will reduce the evolutionary benefits to be gained. Numerous studies support the correlation between postpartum depression (PPD) and lack of social support or indicators of possible infant health and development problems. PPD may be an adaptation that informs mothers that they are suffering or have suffered a fitness cost, that motivates them to reduce or eliminate investment in offspring under certain circumstances, and that may help them negotiate greater levels of investment from others. PPD also appears to be a good model for depression in general.

Item Type:Preprint
Keywords:postpartum depression, parental investment, life history theory, reproduction, mental health, evolutionary psychology
Subjects:Biology > Sociobiology
Psychology > Clinical Psychology
Psychology > Evolutionary Psychology
ID Code:1720
Deposited By:Hagen, Edward
Deposited On:29 Jul 2001
Last Modified:11 Mar 2011 08:54

Available Versions of this Item

References in Article

Select the SEEK icon to attempt to find the referenced article. If it does not appear to be in cogprints you will be forwarded to the paracite service. Poorly formated references will probably not work.

Affonso, D. D. and Arizmendi, T. G. Disturbances in post-partum adaptation and depressive symptomatology. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynaecology 5: 15-32. 1986.

Affonso, D. D. and Domino, G. Postpartum depression: A review. Birth: Issues in Perinatal Care & Education 11: 231-235. 1984.

Alexander, R. D. Ostracism and indirect reciprocity: The reproductive significance of humor. Ethology & Sociobiology 7: 253-270. 1986.

APA. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association. 1994.

Areias, M. E. G., Kumar, R., Barros, H. and Figueiredo, E. Correlates of postnatal depression in mothers and fathers. British Journal of Psychiatry 169: 36-41. 1996.

Atkinson, A. K. and Rickel, A. U. Postpartum depression in primiparous parents. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 93: 115-119. 1984.

Axelrod, R. and Dion, D. The Further Evolution of Cooperation. Science 242: 1385-1390. 1988.

Axelrod, R. and Hamilton, W. D. The Evolution of Cooperation in Biological Systems. In The Evolution of Cooperation. R. Axelrod (Ed.). New York: Basic Books, Inc. 1984. pp. 88-105.

Barkow, J. H., ed., Cosmides, L., ed. and Tooby, J., ed. The adapted mind: Evolutionary psychology and the generation of culture.: Oxford University Press; New York, NY, US. 1992.

Beck, C. T. The lived experience of postpartum depression: A phenomenological study. Nursing Research 41: 166-170. 1992.

Beck, C. T. The effects of postpartum depression on maternal-infant interaction: a meta-analysis. Nursing Research 44. 1995.

Beck, C. T. A meta-analysis of the relationship between postpartum depression and infant temperament. Nursing Research 45: 225-230. 1996a.

Beck, C. T. Postpartum Depressed Mothers' Experiences Interacting with Their Children. Nursing Research 45: 98-104. 1996b.

Betzig, L. L., Borgerhoff Mulder, M. and Turke, P. (Eds.). Human reproductive behavior: A Darwinian perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1988.

Birtchnell, J. How Humans Relate. Westport, CT: Paeger. 1993.

Blurton Jones, N. The costs of children and the adaptive scheduling of births: Towards a sociobiological perspective on demography. In Sociobiology of sexual and reproductive strategies. A. Rasa, C. Vogel, and E. Voland (Eds.). New York: Chapman and Hall. 1989. pp.

Boath, E. H., Pryce, A. J. and Cox, J. L. Postnatal depression: the impact on the family. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology 16: 199-203. 1998.

Bongaarts, J. and Delgado, H. Effects of Nutritional Status on Fertility in Rural Guatemala. In Natural Fertility. H. Leridon and J. Menken (Eds.). Liége: Ordina Editions. 1979. pp. 107-133.

Boyce, P., Hickie, I. and Parker, G. Parents, partners or personality? Risk factors for post-natal depression. Journal of Affective Disorders 21: 245-255. 1991.

Campbell, S. B. and Cohn, J. F. Prevalence and correlates of postpartum depression in first-time mothers. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 100: 594-599. 1991.

Campbell, S. B., Cohn, J. F., Flanagan, C., Popper, S. and et al. Course and correlates of postpartum depression during the transition to parenthood. Development & Psychopathology 4: 29-47. 1992.

Chisholm, J. S. Death, Hope, and Sex: Life-History Theory and the Development of Reproductive Strategies. Current Anthropology 34: 1-24. 1993.

Clutton-Brock, T. H. The evolution of parental care. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. 1991.

Cohn, J. F., Campbell, S. B., Matias, R. and Hopkins, J. Face-to-face interactions of postpartum depressed and nondepressed mother-infant pairs at 2 months. Developmental Psychology 26: 15-23. 1990.

Cohn, J. F., Campbell, S. B. and Ross, S. Infant response in the still-face paradigm at 6 months predicts avoidant and secure attachment at 12 months. Special Issue: Attachment and developmental psychopathology. Development & Psychopathology 3: 367-376. 1991.

Collins, N. L., Dunkel-Schetter, C., Lobel, M. and Scrimshaw, S. C. Social support in pregnancy: Psychosocial correlates of birth outcomes and postpartum depression. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology 65: 1243-1258. 1993.

Cosmides, L. and Tooby, J. Cognitive adaptations for social exchange. In The adapted mind: Evolutionary psychology and the generation of culture. L. C. Jerome H. Barkow, John Tooby, Eds. (Ed.): Oxford University Press, New York, NY, US. 1992. pp. 163-228.

Cox, J. L., Murray, D. and Chapman, G. A controlled study of the onset, duration and prevalence of postnatal depression. British Journal of Psychiatry 163: 27-31. 1993.

Cramer, B. Are postpartum depressions a mother-infant relationship disorder? Infant Mental Health Journal 14: 283-297. 1993.

Cutrona, C. E. Nonpsychotic postpartum depression: A review of recent research. Clinical Psychology Review 2: 487-503. 1982.

Cutrona, C. E. Causal Attributions and perinatal depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 92: 161-172. 1983.

Cutrona, C. E. and Troutman, B. R. Social support, infant temperament, and parenting self-efficacy: A mediational model of postpartum depression. Child Development 57: 1507-1518. 1986.

Daly, M. and Wilson, M. Discriminative Parental Solicitude: A Biological Perspective. Journal Of Marriage and the Family 42: 277-288. 1980.

Daly, M. and Wilson, M. Sex, Evolution, and Behavior. Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Company. 1983.

Daly, M. and Wilson, M. A Sociobiological Analysis of Human Infanticide. In Infanticide: Comparative and Evolutionary Perspectives. G. Hausfater and S. B. Hrdy (Eds.). New York: Aldine. 1984. pp. 487-502.

Daly, M. and Wilson, M. The Darwinian Psychology of Discriminative Parental Solicitude. Paper presented at the Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, Lincoln, Nebraska. 1987.

Daly, M. and Wilson, M. Homicide. New York: A. de Gruyter. 1988.

Daly, M. and Wilson, M. Discriminative Parental Solicitude and the Relevance of Evolutionary Models to the Analysis of Motivational Systems. In The Cognitive Neurosciences. M. S. Gazzaniga (Ed.). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. 1995. pp. 1269-1286.

Dickemann, M. Female infanticide, reproductive strategies, and social stratification: A preliminary model. In Evolutionary biology and human social behavior. N. A. Chagnon and W. Irons (Eds.). North Scituate, MA: Duxbury Press. 1979. pp.

Dickemann, M. Paternal confidence and dowry competition: A biocultural analysis of purdah. In Natural selection and social behavior: Recent research and new theory. R. D. Alexander and D. W. Tinkle (Eds.). New York: Chiron Press. 1981. pp.

Draper, P. and Harpending, H. Father absence and reproductive strategy. Journal of Anthropological Research 38: 255-273. 1982.

Field, T. and et al. Pregnancy problems, postpartum depression, and early mother-infant interactions. Developmental Psychology 21: 1152-1156. 1985.

Fowles, E. R. Relationships among prenatal maternal attachment, presence of postnatal depressive symptoms, and maternal role attainment. Journal of the Society of Pediatric Nurses 1: 75-82. 1996.

Gardner, R. J. Mechanisms in major depressive disorder: an evolutionary model. Archives of General Psychiatry 39: 1436-1441. 1982.

Ghubash, R. and Abou-Saleh, M. T. Postpartum psychiatric illness in Arab culture: Prevalence and psychosocial correlates. British Journal of Psychiatry 171: 65-68. 1997.

Gilbert, P. Human Nature and Suffering. London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 1989.

Gotlib, I. H., Whiffen, V. E., Mount, J. H., Milne, K. and et al. Prevalence rates and demographic characteristics associated with depression in pregnancy and the postpartum. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology 57: 269-274. 1989.

Gotlib, I. H., Whiffen, V. E., Wallace, P. M. and Mount, J. H. Prospective investigation of postpartum depression: Factors involved in onset and recovery. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 100: 122-132. 1991.

Grafen, A. Biological signals as handicaps. Journal of Theoretical Biology 144: 517-546. 1990.

Graff, L. A., Dyck, D. G. and Schallow, J. R. Predicting postpartum depressive symptoms: A structural modelling analysis. Perceptual & Motor Skills 73: 1137-1138. 1991.

Grimes, D. A. The morbidity and mortality of pregnancy: still risky business. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 170: 1489-94. 1994.

Hagen, E. H. Postpartum depression as an adaptation to paternal and kin exploitation. Paper presented at the Human Behavior and Evolution Society 8th Annual Conference, Northwestern University. 1996.

Hagen, E. H. The Defection hypothesis vs. the Niche Hypothesis of Major Depression. Paper presented at the ASCAP Annual Meeting, University of California, Davis. 1998a.

Hagen, E. H. The Functions of Postpartum Depression and the Implications for General Depression. Paper presented at the Human Behavior and Evolution Society 10th Annual Conference, University of California, Davis. 1998b.

Hagen, E. H. Reproductive Decision-making and Postpartum Depression. Paper presented at the 97th Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 1998c.

Hagen, E. H. Parental investment and child health in a Yanomamo village. . submitted.

Haig, D. Genetic conflicts in human pregnancy. Quarterly Review of Biology 68: 495-532. 1993.

Hames, R. Costs and Benefits of Monogamy and Polygyny for Yanomamö Women. Ethology and Sociobiology 17: 181-199. 1996.

Harris, B. Biological and hormonal aspects of postpartum depressed mood: Working towards strategies for prophylaxis and treatment. Special Issue: Depression. British Journal of Psychiatry 164: 288-292. 1994.

Harris, B., Othman, S., Davies, J. A., Weppner, G. J., Richards, C. J., Newcombe, R. G., Lazarus, J. H., Parkes, A. B., Hall, R. and Phillips, D. I. Association between postpartum thyroid dysfunction and thyroid antibodies and depression. British Medical Journal 305: 152-156. 1992.

Hartung, J. Polygyny and inheritance of wealth. Current Anthropology 23: 1-12. 1982.

Hartung, J. Matrilineal inheritance. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8: 661-688. 1985.

Henderson, S. Care-eliciting behavior in man. Journal of Nervous Mental Disorders 159: 172-181. 1974.

Henderson, S. The Social Network, Support and Neurosis. British Journal of Psychiatry 131: 185-191. 1977.

Henderson, S. Social Bonds in the Epidemiology of Neurosis: A Preliminary Communication. British Journal of Psychiatry 132: 463-466. 1978.

Henderson, S. Social relationships, adversity and neurosis: an analysis of prospective observations. British Journal of Psychiatry 138: 391-398. 1981.

Henderson, S., Byrne, D. G., Duncan-Jones, P., Scott, R. and Adcock, S. Social Relationships, Adversity and Neurosis: A Study of Associations in a General Population Sample. British Journal of Psychiatry 136: 574-583. 1980.

Hill, K. and Kaplan, K. Tradeoffs in male and female reproductive strategies among the Ache. In Human reproductive behavior: A Darwinian perspective. L. Betzig, M. Borgerhoff Mulder, and P. Turke (Eds.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1988. pp.

Hobfoll, S. E., Ritter, C., Lavin, J., Hulsizer, M. R. and et al. Depression prevalence and incidence among inner-city pregnant and postpartum women. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology 63: 445-453. 1995.

Hoffman, Y. and Drotar, D. The impact of postpartum depressed mood on mother-infant interaction: Like mother like baby? Infant Mental Health Journal 12: 65-80. 1991.

Hopkins, J., Campbell, S. B. and Marcus, M. Role of infant-related stressors in postpartum depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 96: 237-241. 1987.

Hopkins, J., Marcus, M. and Campbell, S. B. Postpartum depression: A critical review. Psychological Bulletin 95: 498-515. 1984.

Hrdy, S. B. Fitness tradeoffs in the history and evolution of delegated mothering with special reference to wet-nursing, abandonment, and infanticide. Ethology & Sociobiology 13: 409-442. 1992.

Jennings, K. D., Ross, S., Popper, S. and Elmore, M. Thoughts of Harming Infants in Depressed and Nondepressed Mothers. Journal of Affective Disorders. in press.

Kumar, R. and Robson, K. M. A prospective study of emotional disorders in childbearing women. British Journal of Psychiatry 144: 35-47. 1984.

Lampert, A. and Friedman, A. Sex differences in vulnerability and maladjustment as a function of parental investment: An evolutionary approach. Social Biology 39: 65-81. 1992.

Lancaster, J. B. Human Adolescence and Reproduction: An Evolutionary Perspective. In School-Age Pregnancy and Parenthood: Biosocial Dimensions. J. B. Lancaster and B. A. Hamburg (Eds.). New York: Aldine De Gruyter. 1986. pp. 17-37.

Li, X. F., Fortney, J. A., Kotelchuck, M. and Glover, L. H. The postpartum period: the key to maternal mortality. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics 54: 1-10. 1996.

Logsdon, M. C., McBride, A. B. and Birkimer, J. C. Social support and postpartum depression. Research in Nursing & Health 17: 449-457. 1994.

Mann, J. Nurturance or Negligence: Maternal Psychology and Behavioral Preference Among Preterm Twins. In The Adapted Mind: Evolutionary Psychology and the Generation of Culture. J. H. Barkow, L. Cosmides, and J. Tooby (Eds.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1992. pp. 367-390.

McGuire, M. T. and Troisi, A. Darwinian Psychiatry. New York: Oxford University Press. 1998.

Miller, J. E. and Huss-Ashmore, R. Do Reproductive Patterns Affect Maternal Nutritional Status? An Analysis of Maternal Depletion in Lesotho. American Journal of Human Biology 1: 409-419. 1989.

Murray, L. Intersubjectivity, object relations theory, and empirical evidence from mother-infant interactions. Special Issue: The effects of relationships on relationships. Infant Mental Health Journal 12: 219-232. 1991.

Murray, L. The impact of postnatal depression on infant development. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines 33. 1992.

Murray, L. and Cooper, P. J. The impact of postpartum depression on child development. International Review of Psychiatry 8: 55-63. 1996.

Nesse, R. What Good Is Feeling Bad - The Evolutionary Benefits Of Psychic Pain. Sciences 31: 30-37. 1991.

Nesse, R. M. and Williams, G. C. Why do we get sick? : the new science of Darwinian medicine. New York: Times Books. 1995.

Ni, H. and Rossignol, A. M. Maternal deaths among women with pregnancies outside of family planning in Sichuan, China. Epidemiology 5: 490-4. 1994.

O'Hara, M. W. Depression and marital adjustment during pregnancy and after delivery. American Journal of Family Therapy 13: 49-55. 1985.

O'Hara, M. W. Social support, life events, and depression during pregnancy and the puerperium. Archives of General Psychiatry 43: 569-573. 1986.

O'Hara, M. W. Postpartum depression : causes and consequences. New York: Springer-Verlag. 1995.

O'Hara, M. W., Neunaber, D. J. and Zekoski, E. M. Prospective study of postpartum depression: Prevalence, course, and predictive factors. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 93: 158-171. 1984.

O'Hara, M. W., Rehm, L. P. and Campbell, S. B. Predicting depressive symptomatology: Cognitive-behavioral models and postpartum depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 91: 457-461. 1982.

O'Hara, M. W., Rehm, L. P. and Campbell, S. B. Postpartum depression: A role for social network and life stress variables. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease 171: 336-341. 1983.

O'Hara, M. W. and Zekoski, E. M. Postpartum depression: A comprehensive review. In Motherhood and mental illness. R. Kumar and I. F. Brockington (Eds.). London: Wright. 1988. pp. 17-63.

Owens, P. C., Smith, R., Brinsmead, M. W. and al, e. Postnatal diappearance of the pregnancy associated reduced sensitivity of plasma cortisol to feedback inhibition. Life Sciences 41: 1745-1750. 1987.

Paykel, E. S., Emms, E. M., Fletcher, J. and Rassaby, E. S. Life events and social support in puerperal depression. British Journal of Psychiatry 136: 339-346. 1980.

Pedersen, C. A., Stern, R. A., Pate, J., Senger, M. A. and et al. Thyroid and adrenal measures during late pregnancy and the puerperium in women who have been major depressed or who become dysphoric postpartum. Special Issue: Toward a new psychobiology of depression in women. Journal of Affective Disorders 29: 201-211. 1993.

Pop, V. J., de Rooy, H. A., Vader, H. L., Van der Heide, D. and et al. Postpartum thyroid dysfunction and depression in an unselected population. New England Journal of Medicine 324: 1815-1816. 1991.

Price, J., Sloman, L., Gardner, R., Gilbert, P. and Rohde, P. The Social Competition Hypothesis of Depression. British Journal of Psychiatry 164: 309-315. 1994.

Richman, J. A., Raskin, V. D. and Gaines, C. Gender roles, social support, and postpartum depressive symptomatology: The benefits of caring. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease 179: 139-147. 1991.

Roff, D. A. The Evolution of Life Histories: Theory and Analysis. New York: Chapman and Hall. 1992.

Schweitzer, R. D., Logan, G. P. and Strassberg, D. The relationship between marital intimacy and postnatal depression. Australian Journal of Marriage & Family 13: 19-23. 1992.

Seguin, L., Potvin, L., St.-Denis, M. and Loiselle, J. Chronic stressors, social support, and depression during pregnancy. Obstetrics and Gynecology 85: 583-589. 1995.

Slavin, M. and Kriegman, D. The Adaptive Design Of The Human Psyche: Psychoanalysis, Evolutionary Biology, And The Therapeutic Process. New York: Guilford Press. 1992.

Smith, R., Owens, P. C., Brinsmead, M. W. and al, e. The non-suppressibility of plasma cortisol persists after pregnancy. Hormone and Metabolic Research 19: 41-42. 1987.

Stearns, S. C. The evolution of life histories. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1992.

Symons, D. The Evolution of Human Sexuality. New York: Oxford University Press. 1979.

Thornhill, N. W. and Thornhill, R. An Evolutionary Analysis Of Psychological Pain Following Rape. 1. The Effects Of Victims Age And Marital Status. Ethology And Sociobiology 11: 155-176. 1990.

Thornhill, R. and Furlow, B. Stress and human reproductive behavior: Attractiveness, women's sexual development, postpartum depression, and baby's cry. In Stress and behavior. A. P. Moller, M. Milinski, and P. J. B. Slater (Eds.). San Diego, California: Academic Press. 1998. pp. 319-369.

Thornhill, R. and Thornhill, N. W. The Evolution of Psychological Pain. In Sociobiology and the Social Sciences. R. W. Bell and N. J. Bell (Eds.). Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press. 1989. pp. 73-103.

Thorpe, K. J., Dragonas, T. and Golding, J. The effects of psychosocial factors on the emotional well-being of women during pregnancy: A cross-cultural study of Britain and Greece. Journal of Reproductive & Infant Psychology 10: 191-204. 1992.

Tooby, J. and Cosmides, L. The past explains the present: Emotional adaptations and the structure of ancestral environments. Ethology & Sociobiology 11: 375-424. 1990.

Voland, E. Human sex-ratio manipulation: Historical data from a German parish. Journal of Human Evolution 13: 99-107. 1984.

Walker, J. J. Care of the patient with severe pregnancy induced hypertension. European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology 65: 127-35. 1996.

Warner, R., Appleby, L., Whitton, A. and Faragher, B. Demographic and Obstetric Risk Factors for Postnatal Psychiatric Morbidity. British Journal of Psychiatry 168: 607-611. 1996.

Watson, J. P., Elliott, S. A., Rugg, A. J. and Brough, D. I. Psychiatric disorder in pregnancy and the first postnatal year. British Journal of Psychiatry 144: 453-462. 1984.

Watson, P. and Andrews, P. An Evolutionary Theory of Unipolar Depression as an Adaptation for Overcoming Constraints of the Social Niche. . unpublished ms.

Weissman, M. M., Bruce, M. L., Leaf, P. J., Florio, L. P. and Holzer, C. Affective Disorders. In Psychiatric Disorders in America. L. N. Robins and D. A. Regier (Eds.). New York: Macmillan, Inc. 1991. pp. 53-80.

Wenegrat, B. Illness and Power. New York: New York University Press. 1995.

Whiffen, V. E. Vulnerability to postpartum depression: A prospective multivariate study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 97: 467-474. 1988.

Whiffen, V. E. The comparison of postpartum with non-postpartum depression: A rose by any other name. Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience 16: 160-165. 1991.

Whiffen, V. E. Is postpartum depression a distinct diagnosis? Clinical Psychology Review 12: 485-508. 1992.

Whiffen, V. E. and Gotlib, I. H. Infants of postpartum depressed mothers: Temperament and cognitive status. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 98: 274-279. 1989.

Whiffen, V. E. and Gotlib, I. H. Comparison of postpartum and nonpostpartum depression: Clinical presentation, psychiatric history, and psychosocial functioning. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology 61: 485-494. 1993.

Widdowson, E. M. Changes in the Body and Its Organs during Lactation: Nutritional Implications. Paper presented at the Symposium on Breast Feeding and the Mother, London. 1976.

Wilson, M. and Daly, M. The Psychology of Parenting in Evolutionary Perspective and the Case of Human Filicide. In Infanticide and parental care. S. Parmigiani and F. S. vom Saal (Eds.). Chur, Switzerland: Harwood Academic Publishers. 1994. pp.

Wolman, B. B. Preface. In Depressive disorders: Facts, theories, and treatment methods. B. B. Wolman and G. Stricker (Eds.). New York: John Wiley & Sons. 1990. pp.

Wood, J. W. Dynamics of Human Reproduction: Biology, Biometry, Demography. New York: Aldine De Gruyter. 1994.

Worthington-Roberts, B. S., Vermeersch, J. and Williams, S. R. Nutrition in Pregnancy and Lactation. St. Louis: Mirror/Mosby College Publishing. 1985.

Yoshida, K., Marks, M. N., Kibe, N., Kumar, R. and others, a. Postnatal depression in Japanese women who have given birth in England. Journal of Affective Disorders 43: 69-77. 1997.

Zahavi, A. and Zahavi, A. The handicap principle : a missing piece of Darwin's puzzle. New York: Oxford University Press. 1997.

Zelkowitz, P. and Milet, T. H. Screening for post-partum depression in a community sample. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 40: 80-86. 1995.

Metadata

Repository Staff Only: item control page