Cross-language hierarchical spreading of activation

Samani, R. and Sharifian, F. (1997) Cross-language hierarchical spreading of activation. [Book Chapter]

Full text available as:



The present study investigated whether in bilingual memory, activation of a node in a lexicon, through presentation of the relevant word stimulus, would spread to a lower node in the other lexicon. Two experiments examined the priming effect of a higher node in one lexicon on the task of translation of a lower node in the other lexicon. In Experiment 1, the primed words representing higher nodes were from subjects' L1 and to-be-translated target words representing lower nodes were from subjects' L2. In Experiment 2, the order of languages was reversed. In both experiments, the primed translation condition was compared with an un-primed translation condition. The results showed a facilitatory effect for the L2 prime-L1 target (L1-to-L2 translation) condition. The result of L1 prime-L2 target (L2-to-L1 translation) condition, however, did not reach significance. The RT difference between L1-to-L2 and L2-to-L1 translation tasks in the un-primed conditions was not significant.

Item Type:Book Chapter
Keywords:Lanaguage and Memory-Spreading activation- Bilingual memory
Subjects:Psychology > Cognitive Psychology
Psychology > Psycholinguistics
ID Code:1663
Deposited By:Sharifian, Farzad
Deposited On:29 Jun 2001
Last Modified:11 Mar 2011 08:54

References in Article

Select the SEEK icon to attempt to find the referenced article. If it does not appear to be in cogprints you will be forwarded to the paracite service. Poorly formated references will probably not work.

Altenberg, E. P., & Cairns, H. S. (1983). The effects of phonetactic constraints on lexical processing in bilingual and

monolingual subjects. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 22, 174-188.

Anderson, J. R. (1983a). The architecture of cognition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Anderson, J. R. (1983b). A spreading activation theory of memory, Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 22,


Anderson, J. R. (1995). Cognitive psychology and its implications (4th ed.). New York: W. H. Freeman.

Balota, D. A. (1983). Automatic semantic activation and episodic memory encoding. Journal of Verbal Learning and

Verbal Behavior, 22, 88-104.

Balota, D. A., & Lorch, R. F. (1986). Depth of automatic spreading activation: Mediated priming effects in pronunciation but

not in lexical decision. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, Cognition, 12, 336-345.

Collins, A. M., & Loftus, E. F. (1975). A spreading activation theory of semantic priming. Psychological Review, 82,


De Groot, A. M. B. & Nas, G. (1991). Lexical representation of cognates and noncognates in compound bilinguals. Journal

of Memory and Language, 30, 90-123.

Fox, E. (1996). Cross-language priming from ignored words: Evidence for a common representational system in bilinguals.

Journal of Memory and Language, 35, 353-370

Frenck, C., & Pynte, J. (1987). Semantic representation and surface forms: A look at across-language priming in bilinguals

Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 16, 383-395.

Gerard, L. D., & Scarborough, D. L. (1971). Language-specific lexical access of homographs by bilinguals. Journal of

Experimental Psychology: Learning, memory, and cognition, 15, 305-315.

Hummel, K. M. (1993). Bilingual memory research: From storage to processing issues. Applied Psycholinguistics, 14,


Keatly, C. W., & De Gelder, B. (1992). The bilingual primed lexical decision task: Cross-language priming disappears with

speeded responses. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 4, 273-292.

Keatly, C. W., Spinks, J., & De Gelder, B. (1994). Asymmetrical cross- language priming effects. Memory and Cognition,

22, 70-84

Kintch, W. (1970). Learning, memory, and conceptual processes. New York: Wiley.

Kolers, P. (1965). Bilingualism and bicodalism. Language and Speech, 8, 122- 128.

Loftus, E. F. (1974). Activation of semantic memory. American Journal of Psychology, 86, 331-337.

Lorch, R. F. (1982). Priming and search processes in semantic memory: A test of three models of spreading activation.

Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 21, 468-492.

McClelland, J. I., & Rumelhart, D. E. (1981). An interactive activation model of context effects in letter perception: Part 1. an

account of basic findings. Psychological Review, 88, 375-407.

Neely, J. H. (1977). Semantic priming and retrieval from lexical memory: Roles of inhibitionless spreading activation and

limited capacity attention. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 106, 226-254.

Paivio, A., & Desrochers, A. (1980). A dual-coding approach to bilingual memory. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 34,


Paivio, A., & Lambert, W. (1981). Dual coding and bilingual memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior,

20, 532-239.

Potter, M. C., So, K. F., Von Echardt, B., & Feldman, L. B. (1984). Lexical and conceptual representation in beginning and

proficient bilinguals. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 23, 23-28.

Quillian, M. R. (1968). Semantic memory. In M. L. Minsky (Ed.), Semantic information processing. Cambridge, MA: MIT


Ratcliff, R., & McKoon, G. (1981). Does activation really spread? Psychological Review, 88, 454-462.

Reder, L. M., & Anderson, J. R. (1980). A partial solution of the paradox of interference: The role of integrating knowledge.

Cognitive Psychology, 12, 447-472.

Roelofs, A. (1992). A spreading-activation theory of lemma retrieval in speaking. Cognition, 42, 107-142.

Rumelhart, D. E., & McClelland, J. L. (1982). An interactive activation model of context effects in letter perception: Part 2.

The contextual enhancement effect and some tests and extensions of the model. Psychological Review, 89, 60-94.

Samani, R. (1996). Lexical representation and bilingual memory: A methodological approach. Unpublished Master's

thesis. Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch.

Sharifian, F. (1996). The system of mental representation of lexical meanings. In C. Lucas (Ed.), Proceedings of the

International Conference on Intelligent and Cognitive Systems. Tehran: IPM

Sharifian, F. (1997). A network model of mental compiling mechanisms. Manuscript submitted for publication.

Smith, M. C. (1991). On the recruitment of semantic information for word fragment completion: Evidence from bilingual

priming. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 17, 234- 244.

Snodgrass, G. (1984). Concepts and their surface representation. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 23,


Tulving, E., & Colotla, V. (1983). Strategies of discourse comprehension, New York: Academic Press.


Repository Staff Only: item control page